This page contains publications on research into how metaphor and other figurative language can be a problem for language learners.
Please email me (J.A.Barnden@cs.bham.ac.uk) to request a paper or further information.
"Difficulties in metaphor comprehension faced by international students whose first language is not English." Applied Linguistics 2011:1-23 version on publisher siteLittlemore, J., Chen, P., Tang, P.L., Koester, A. & Barnden, J. (2010):
"The use of metaphor and metonymy in academic and professional discourse and their challenges for learners and teachers of English." In S. De Knop, F. Boers & T. De Rycker (Eds), Fostering Language Teaching Efficiency Through Cognitive Linguistics, pp.189-211. Berlin / New York: De Gruyter Mouton.Barnden, J.A. (2006):
"Consequences for language learning of an AI approach to metaphor." In J. Salazar, M. Amengual & M. Juan (Eds), Usos Sociales del Lenguaje y Aspectos Psicolinguisticos: Perspectivas Aplicadas, pp.15-57. Palma, Mallorca: Universitat de les Illes Baleares. [the paper is in English] preprint