This page contains publications on research into how metaphor and other figurative language can be a problem for language learners.

Please email me ( to request a paper or further information.

Littlemore, J., Chen, P.T., Koester, A. & Barnden, J. (2011):
   "Difficulties in metaphor comprehension faced by 
       international students whose first language is not English."

   Applied Linguistics 2011:1-23

   version on publisher site

Littlemore, J., Chen, P., Tang, P.L., Koester, A. & Barnden, J. (2010):
   "The use of metaphor and metonymy in academic and professional discourse
      and their challenges for learners and teachers of English."

   In S. De Knop, F. Boers & T. De Rycker (Eds),
      Fostering Language Teaching Efficiency Through Cognitive Linguistics, pp.189-211.
      Berlin / New York: De Gruyter Mouton.

Barnden, J.A. (2006):
   "Consequences for language learning of an AI approach to metaphor."

   In J. Salazar, M. Amengual & M. Juan (Eds),
      Usos Sociales del Lenguaje y Aspectos Psicolinguisticos: Perspectivas Aplicadas, pp.15-57. 
   Palma, Mallorca: Universitat de les Illes Baleares.
   [the paper is in English]


Last mod 3 July 2014