Introduction to AI - Week 1

Introduction to
Artificial Intelligence

Manfred Kerber

School of Computer Science
The University of Birmingham
Birmingham, B15 2TT, England
e-mail:, Office: 137 mmk/Teaching/AI

Artificial Intelligence
- The Dream -

Dreams in Science and Technology

Calculators - Schickard, Pascal, Leibniz

  Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635)     Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

The dream of the automation of computation - partly realised

The Dream of a Universal Computer
Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace

 Charles Babbage (1792-1871)  Ada Lovelace (1815-1852)

Difference Engine/Analytical Engine

The dream of a universal computing machine, almost realised

Science or Mystery?

Robert Fludd (1574-1637): Universe as a mixture of opposite principals (like light and darkness, sympathy and antipathy)

Understanding the Mind

Ventricle theory of 1524, First attempts to locate cognitive abilities in regions of the brain.

Understanding the Mind (Cont'd)

René Descartes' (1596-1650) description in "Traité de l'Homme" to explain reflex actions. The long fiber running from the foot to the cavity in the head is pulled by the heat and releases a fluid that makes the muscles contract.

Understanding the Mind (Cont'd)

Phrenology, localisation of mental functions in the brain
Introduced by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
picture from his disciple Johann Kaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832)

Intelligent Machines - Fakes

Dream: Build intelligent machines that can speak!

Intelligent Machines - Fakes

Build intelligent machines that can play chess!
Kempelen's chess playing Turk (1768)

Predicting the Future

Pierre Simon Laplace
          Laplace's Demon
Build a super-human intelligence which is able to compute all of the world (past, present, and future) if only it knows for a single point in time the positions and speeds of all particles in the universe.

Science Fiction - Building Companions

Karel Capek (1890-1938), robota = forced labour.
Build intelligent machines that can work for you!
Asimov's Robot Laws:
  1. A robot must not harm a human being or allow by inactiveness that a human being is harmed.
  2. A robot must obey to orders given by a human being unless the execution of the order is in conflict with law 1.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence, unless this is in conflict with laws 1 or 2.

AI = Build Machines that Behave as in the Movies

 Metropolis  2001 (HAL)  Star Wars (R2-D2)


Artificial Intelligence
- The Roots -


(384-322 B.C.)
Codify different styles of deductive reasoning by so-called syllogisms, e.g. Modus Ponens A           A ->  B
-------- ------------- -------------
Read: For any statements A and B holds: if A is true and A implies B is true then B is true.
Or more concretely:

 It's raining     If it's raining then the street gets wet
-------- ------------- -------------
 The street gets wet

The Idea of the Mechanisation of Logic

Raimundus Lullus
Ars Magna:
Try to build a machine which can answer all questions, in form of wheels like:

Regulae ad directionem ingenii

René Descartes
(Carried through for geometry by analytical geometry)
Mind-body separation

Calculemus = Let's calculate

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
     Interest linked to the development of calculator
Leibniz invented the dual representation of numbers

The Laws of Thought

George Boole
(Boolean Algebra, Boolean values in computer science)

Special Reasoning Machines

Earl Stanhope's Logic Demonstrator, 1777

William Jevons' Logic Machine, 1869

Classical Logic

Gottlob Frege

Bertrand Russell

Strength and Limitations of Classical Logic

Kurt Gödel

Modern Computers

Alan Turing

John von Neumann

The Role of Logic

symbolic representation of knowledge

Brain science - Neuroscience

Brain science - Neuroscience (Cont'd)


Gives raise to neural nets,
subsymbolic representation of knowledge


Sigmund Freud

Relationship between psychology - cognitive science - artificial intelligence


Charles Darwin
           What does it mean to be "fittest"?

Gives raise to evolutionary computation (rather than programming, breed programs)



© Manfred Kerber, 2004, Introduction to AI
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