Introduction to AI - Week 1
School of Computer Science
The University of Birmingham
Birmingham, B15 2TT, England
e-mail: M.Kerber@cs.bham.ac.uk, Office: 137
- The Dream -
- Dreams in science and technology
- Calculators and the computer
- Understanding the mind
- Welcome to the machine - Science fiction
Dreams in Science and Technology
- Flying, Travel to other planets/solar systems,
- Immortality, health, superhuman power,
- Understanding the physical structure of the universe,
- Utopia, a just, peaceful, wealthy society
- Build machines that do the work for us
- Understanding ourselves, our origins, our thinking, our wishes
Calculators - Schickard, Pascal, Leibniz
The dream of the automation of computation - partly realised
The Dream of a Universal Computer
Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace
| Charles Babbage (1792-1871)
|| Ada Lovelace (1815-1852)|
Difference Engine/Analytical Engine
The dream of a universal computing machine, almost realised
Science or Mystery?
Robert Fludd (1574-1637): Universe as a mixture of opposite
principals (like light and darkness, sympathy and antipathy)
Understanding the Mind
Ventricle theory of 1524, First attempts to locate cognitive abilities
in regions of the brain.
Understanding the Mind (Cont'd)
René Descartes' (1596-1650) description in "Traité de l'Homme" to explain
reflex actions. The long fiber running from the foot to the cavity in
the head is pulled by the heat and releases a fluid that makes the
Understanding the Mind (Cont'd)
Phrenology, localisation of mental functions in the brain
Introduced by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
picture from his disciple Johann Kaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832)
Intelligent Machines - Fakes
Dream: Build intelligent machines that can speak!
Intelligent Machines - Fakes
Build intelligent machines that can play chess!
Kempelen's chess playing Turk (1768)
Predicting the Future
Pierre Simon Laplace
Build a super-human intelligence which is able to compute all of the
world (past, present, and future) if only it knows for a single point
in time the positions and speeds of all particles in the universe.
Science Fiction - Building Companions
Karel Capek (1890-1938), robota = forced labour.
Build intelligent machines that can work for you!
Asimov's Robot Laws:
- A robot must not harm a human being or allow by inactiveness that a
human being is harmed.
- A robot must obey to orders given by a human being unless the
execution of the order is in conflict with law 1.
- A robot must protect its own existence, unless this is in
conflict with laws 1 or 2.
AI = Build Machines that Behave as in the Movies
|| 2001 (HAL)
|| Star Wars (R2-D2)|
- Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis,
Nils J. Nilsson, Morgan Kaufmann 1998.
- Artificial Intelligence - A Modern Approach,
Stuart Russell & Peter Norvig, Prentice Hall, 2nd edition.
- Artificial Intelligence, 3rd Edition,
Patrick Henry Winston, Addison-Wesley, 1992.
- Artificial Intelligence, 2nd Edition,
Elaine Rich & Kevin Knight, McGraw Hill 1991.
- The Roots -
Codify different styles of deductive reasoning by so-called
syllogisms, e.g. Modus Ponens
A A -> B
Read: For any statements A and B holds: if A is true and A
implies B is true then B is true.
Or more concretely:
| It's raining
If it's raining then the street gets wet|
| The street gets wet|
The Idea of the Mechanisation of Logic
Try to build a machine which can answer all questions, in form of
Regulae ad directionem ingenii
(Carried through for geometry by analytical geometry)
- translate any problem into a mathematical problem
- transform any mathematical problem into a system of equations
- translate any system of equations into one equation
- solve this one equation
Calculemus = Let's calculate
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Interest linked to the development of calculator
- Lingua characteristica universalis:
Find a universal language which can be used to represent any problem
- Calculus ratiocinator:
Can solve any problem automatically (without dispute):
Leibniz invented the dual representation of numbers
The Laws of Thought
(Boolean Algebra, Boolean values in computer science)
- Foundations of propositional logic
- Investigate the algebraic laws of logic, e.g.:
A & A <-> A (i.e., A and A is the same as A)
- purpose: "to collect ... some probable intimations
concerning the nature and constitution of the human mind."
Special Reasoning Machines
Earl Stanhope's Logic Demonstrator, 1777
- machine for solving syllogisms, numerical problems in in logical
form, elementary questions of probability.
William Jevons' Logic Machine, 1869
- Machine for Boolean algebra and Venn diagrams, able to solve
logical problems faster than human beings
- Begriffsschrift, foundations of classical logic
- Paradoxes, types, principia mathematica
Strength and Limitations of Classical Logic
- Completeness of first-order logic, that is, any reasoning
whether something is a logical consequence of something else
can be mechanised in this powerful reasoning system
- Incompleteness of sufficiently rich logic, there are truths
which do not have a finite proof
- What can be computed by a computer? - Halting problem
Turing test for intelligence
John von Neumann
- von Neumann architecture: give a description that is independent from the
particular realisation of a computer
The Role of Logic
symbolic representation of knowledge
- McCarthy: The relationship between computation and
math. logic will be as fruitful as that between physics and analysis
- Logic as powerful knowledge representation formalism
- Logical reasoning as a model for human reasoning
- Mechanisation of reasoning by logical rules
- Extensions to logic necessary for adequate reasoning:
- probabilistic reasoning
- non-monotonicity (revision of judgements)
- non-deductive reasoning (analogy, induction, abduction)
Brain science - Neuroscience
- Brain (vs heart) as seat of the soul and the mind
- Understand the function of the brain
- ventricle theory (ventricles = empty parts of the brain do the
- brain as a big gland
- phrenology (which part does what)
- understand brain as a highly connected set of neurons, 1010
neurons with each 100 connections on average
- neuron as a digital entity which either does or does not fire
depending whether an activation threshold is exceeded or not
Brain science - Neuroscience (Cont'd)
Gives raise to neural nets,
subsymbolic representation of knowledge
- Founder of psychoanalysis
- Try to understand the psyche
- Try to understand motivations as well as anomalies of human
behaviour/human mind/human soul (clues to mental activity/conflicts)
- The conscious vs the unconscious
Relationship between psychology - cognitive science -
- "On the origin of species by means of natural selection"
What does it mean to be "fittest"?
- different species develop by natural selection
- cross-over and random mutation
- survival of the fittest (only the fit ones mate and reproduce)
Gives raise to evolutionary computation (rather than
programming, breed programs)
- Different origins of AI: philosophy, logic, computation, psychology,
- In this module we follow mainly the logical/computational
origins: symbolic representation of knowledge
- Introduction chapters in the AI books
- The story of Cybernetics,
Maurice Trask, Studio Vista, 1971.
- Minds, Brains & Computers,
edited by R. Morelli et al., Ablex Publ., 1992.
- Gehirn, Bewusstsein und Erkenntnis, E. Oeser, Franz
Seitelberger, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1988.
© Manfred Kerber, 2004, Introduction to AI
The URL of this page is http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~mmk/Teaching/AI/Teaching/AI/l1.html.
URL of module http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~mmk/Teaching/AI/