Introduction to AI - Week 1

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Introduction to
Artificial Intelligence
06-08775

Manfred Kerber

School of Computer Science
The University of Birmingham
Birmingham, B15 2TT, England
e-mail: M.Kerber@cs.bham.ac.uk, Office: 137
http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/ mmk/Teaching/AI


Artificial Intelligence
- The Dream -

Dreams in Science and Technology


Calculators - Schickard, Pascal, Leibniz

     
  Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635)     Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

The dream of the automation of computation - partly realised


The Dream of a Universal Computer
Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace

   
 Charles Babbage (1792-1871)  Ada Lovelace (1815-1852)

Difference Engine/Analytical Engine

The dream of a universal computing machine, almost realised


Science or Mystery?

          
Robert Fludd (1574-1637): Universe as a mixture of opposite principals (like light and darkness, sympathy and antipathy)

Understanding the Mind

         
Ventricle theory of 1524, First attempts to locate cognitive abilities in regions of the brain.

Understanding the Mind (Cont'd)


René Descartes' (1596-1650) description in "Traité de l'Homme" to explain reflex actions. The long fiber running from the foot to the cavity in the head is pulled by the heat and releases a fluid that makes the muscles contract.

Understanding the Mind (Cont'd)

Phrenology, localisation of mental functions in the brain
Introduced by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
picture from his disciple Johann Kaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832)

Intelligent Machines - Fakes
Speech

                   
Dream: Build intelligent machines that can speak!
(Entertainment)

Intelligent Machines - Fakes
Chess

                   
Build intelligent machines that can play chess!
Kempelen's chess playing Turk (1768)

Predicting the Future


Pierre Simon Laplace
(1749-1827)
          Laplace's Demon
Build a super-human intelligence which is able to compute all of the world (past, present, and future) if only it knows for a single point in time the positions and speeds of all particles in the universe.

Science Fiction - Building Companions

         
Karel Capek (1890-1938), robota = forced labour.
Build intelligent machines that can work for you!
Asimov's Robot Laws:
  1. A robot must not harm a human being or allow by inactiveness that a human being is harmed.
  2. A robot must obey to orders given by a human being unless the execution of the order is in conflict with law 1.
  3. A robot must protect its own existence, unless this is in conflict with laws 1 or 2.

AI = Build Machines that Behave as in the Movies

     
 Metropolis  2001 (HAL)  Star Wars (R2-D2)

Literature    


Artificial Intelligence
- The Roots -

Logic


Aristotle
(384-322 B.C.)
Codify different styles of deductive reasoning by so-called syllogisms, e.g. Modus Ponens A           A ->  B
B
-------- ------------- -------------
Read: For any statements A and B holds: if A is true and A implies B is true then B is true.
Or more concretely:

 It's raining     If it's raining then the street gets wet
-------- ------------- -------------
 The street gets wet


The Idea of the Mechanisation of Logic


Raimundus Lullus
(1235-1316)
Ars Magna:
Try to build a machine which can answer all questions, in form of wheels like:


Regulae ad directionem ingenii


René Descartes
(1596-1650)
(Carried through for geometry by analytical geometry)
Mind-body separation

Calculemus = Let's calculate


Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
(1646-1716)
     Interest linked to the development of calculator
Leibniz invented the dual representation of numbers

The Laws of Thought


George Boole
(1815-1864)
(Boolean Algebra, Boolean values in computer science)

Special Reasoning Machines


Earl Stanhope's Logic Demonstrator, 1777
          

William Jevons' Logic Machine, 1869

Classical Logic


Gottlob Frege
(1848-1925)
          

Bertrand Russell
(1872-1970)

Strength and Limitations of Classical Logic


Kurt Gödel
(1906-1978)
          

Modern Computers


Alan Turing
(1912-1954)
          

John von Neumann
(1903-1957)

The Role of Logic

symbolic representation of knowledge

Brain science - Neuroscience


Brain science - Neuroscience (Cont'd)

          

Gives raise to neural nets,
subsymbolic representation of knowledge


Psychology


Sigmund Freud
(1856-1939)
          

Relationship between psychology - cognitive science - artificial intelligence


Darwinism


Charles Darwin
(1809-1882)
           What does it mean to be "fittest"?

Gives raise to evolutionary computation (rather than programming, breed programs)


Summary

Reading    



© Manfred Kerber, 2004, Introduction to AI
24.4.2005
The URL of this page is http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~mmk/Teaching/AI/Teaching/AI/l1.html.
URL of module http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~mmk/Teaching/AI/