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@Article{Cilibrasi:2005:ITIT, author = "Rudi Cilibrasi and Paul M. B. Vitanyi", title = "Clustering by Compression", journal = "IEEE Transactions on Information Theory", year = "2005", volume = "51", number = "4", pages = "1523--1545", month = apr, keywords = "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, complearn, universal dissimilarity distance, normalised compression distance, hierarchical unsupervised clustering, quartet tree method, parameter-free data-mining, heterogenous data analysis, Kolmogorov complexity", ISSN = "0018-9448", URL = "http://homepages.cwi.nl/~paulv/papers/cluster.pdf", DOI = "doi:10.1109/TIT.2005.844059", size = "21 pages", abstract = "We present a new method for clustering based on compression. The method doesn't use subject-specific features or background knowledge, and works as follows: First, we determine a parameter-free, universal, similarity distance, the normalized compression distance or NCD , computed from the lengths of compressed data files (singly and in pairwise concatenation). Second, we apply a hierarchical clustering method. The NCD is not restricted to a specific application area, and works across application area boundaries. A theoretical precursor, the normalised information distance, co-developed by one of the authors, is provably optimal. However, the optimality comes at the price of using the non-computable notion of Kolmogorov complexity. We propose axioms to capture the real-world setting, and show that the NCD approximates optimality. To extract a hierarchy of clusters from the distance matrix, we determine a dendrogram (binary tree) by a new quartet method and a fast heuristic to implement it. The method is implemented and available as public software, and is robust under choice of different compressors. To substantiate our claims of universality and robustness, we report evidence of successful application in areas as diverse as genomics, virology, languages, literature, music, handwritten digits, astronomy, and combinations of objects from completely different domains, using statistical, dictionary, and block sorting compressors. In genomics we presented new evidence for major questions in Mammalian evolution, based on whole-mitochondrial genomic analysis: the Eutherian orders and the Marsupionta hypothesis against the Theria hypothesis.", notes = "With respect to the version published in the IEEE Trans. Inform. Th., 51:4(2005), 1523?1545, we have changed Definition 2.1 of 'admissible distance' making it more general and Definitions 2.4 and 2.5 of 'normalized admissible distance,' consequently adapted Lemma 2.6 (II.2) and in its proof (II.3) and the displayed inequalities. This left Theorem 6.3 unchanged except for changing 'such that d(x; y) \le e' to 'such that d(x; y) \le e and C(v) \le C(x).'", }

Genetic Programming entries for Rudi Cilibrasi Paul M B Vitanyi