The Price of Programmability

Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.4549

  author =       "Michael Conrad",
  title =        "The Price of Programmability",
  booktitle =    "The Universal {Turing} Machine A Half-Century Survey",
  publisher =    "Oxford University Press",
  year =         "1988",
  editor =       "Rolf Herken",
  pages =        "285--307",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, cellular
                 automata, evolvable hardware, quantum computing, DNA
                 and molecular computing",
  size =         "23 pages",
  ISBN =         "0-19-853741-7",
  isbn13 =       "978-3211826379",
  URL =          "",
  URL =          "",
  abstract =     "Programmability and computational efficiency are
                 fundamental attributes of computing systems. A third
                 attribute is evolutionary adaptability, the ability of
                 a system to self-organise through a variation and
                 selection process. The author has previously proposed
                 that these three attributes of computing are linked by
                 a trade-off principle, which may be roughly stated
                 thus: a computing system cannot at the same time have
                 high programmability, high computational efficiency,
                 and high evolutionary adaptability (e.g., Conrad 1972,
                 1974, 1985). The purpose of the present paper is to
                 outline the reasons for the trade-off principle in a
                 manner which, though not entirely formal, is
                 sufficiently detailed to allow for a well-defined
                 formulation. We also consider the implications of the
                 principle, first for alternative computer
                 architectures. suited to solving problems by methods of
                 evolutionary search and second, for limits on the
                 capacity of programmable machines to simulate nature
                 and duplicate intelligence.",
  notes =        "Aug 2018 Springer DOI broken (removed Nov 2018)

                 DOI and abstract refer to second edition published by
                 in 1995 Springer as Volume 2 in their Computerkultur
                 Series ISSN: 0946-9613 (Print). p261-281. isbn
                 978-3-211-82637-9 Rest refers to OUP original

                 Reviewed by Chris Hankin:

                 Essex Library Classmark Q 312

                 Evolution of programs. p287-288 {"}A real system is
                 (effectively) programmable{"}...if {"}the user's
                 manual{"} is {"}finite{"}. {"}as programs become large
                 it is inevitable that they will in some measure be
                 incorrect (see Avizienis 1983){"}. p294 stuff about
                 evolution which seems to have wrong mutation rates and
                 ignore the possibility of neutral mutations or gene
                 duplications. p296 fitness landscapes referred to as
                 {"}adaptive surface{"}. Redundancy...{"}opens up
                 extradimensional bypasses to higher adaptive peaks
                 (Conrad 1979).

                 p303-304 {"}Quantum mechanical tunnelling...and
                 electron diffusion...(Biological macromolecules, eg
                 DNA) excellent type of dynamics for (computing) modules
                 in an evolutionary architecture{"}. p304
                 {"}Evolutionary programming{"}. p304 {"}substrate is of
                 such immense importance{"}. p305 {"}Human intelligence
                 (brain)...we cannot understand them in terms of a
                 computer program and at the same time put our
                 understanding to the test by running the program on a

Genetic Programming entries for Michael Conrad