Coevolution and the Red Queen effect shape virtual plants

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  author =       "Marc Ebner",
  title =        "Coevolution and the Red Queen effect shape virtual
  journal =      "Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines",
  year =         "2006",
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--123",
  month =        mar,
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Red Queen
                 effect, Coevolution, Lindenmayer systems, Artificial
  ISSN =         "1389-2576",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1007/s10710-006-7013-2",
  size =         "21 pages",
  abstract =     "According to the Red Queen hypothesis a population of
                 individuals may be improving some trait even though
                 fitness remains constant. We have tested this
                 hypothesis using a population of virtual plants. The
                 plants have to compete with each other for virtual
                 sunlight. Plants are modelled using Lindenmayer systems
                 and rendered with OpenGL. Reproductive success of a
                 plant depends on the amount of virtual light received
                 as well as on the structural complexity of the plant.
                 We experiment with two different modes of evaluation.
                 In one experiment, plants are evaluated in isolation,
                 while in other experiments plants are evaluated using
                 coevolution. When using coevolution plants have to
                 compete with each other for sunlight inside the same
                 environment. Coevolution produces much thinner and
                 taller plants in comparison to bush-like plants which
                 are obtained when plants are evaluated in isolation.
                 The presence of other individuals leads to an
                 evolutionary arms race. Because plants are evaluated
                 inside the same environment, the leaves of one plant
                 may be shadowed by other plants. In an attempt to gain
                 more sunlight, plants grow higher and higher. The Red
                 Queen effect was observed when individuals of a single
                 population were coevolving.",
  notes =        "L-Systems p103 'continued opened evolution'. Plants
                 grow near parents on 2-D surface. Multiple genetic
                 operations. Z-buffer rendering light gives (part of)
                 fitness, other part from resources to grow plant. P112
                 Perlin noise 1998.",

Genetic Programming entries for Marc Ebner