Potential for Raman Spectroscopy to Provide Cancer Screening Using a Peripheral Blood Sample

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@Article{Harris:2009:HNO,
  author =       "Andrew T. Harris and Anxhela Lungari and 
                 Christopher J. Needham and Stephen L. Smith and 
                 Michael A. Lones and Sheila E. Fisher and Xuebin Yang and 
                 Nicola Cooper and Jennifer Kirkham and D. Alastair Smith and 
                 Dominic P. Martin-Hirsch and Alec S. High",
  title =        "Potential for Raman Spectroscopy to Provide Cancer
                 Screening Using a Peripheral Blood Sample",
  journal =      "Head \& Neck Oncology",
  year =         "2009",
  volume =       "1",
  pages =        "34",
  month =        sep,
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming",
  URL =          "http://www.headandneckoncology.org/content/1/1/34",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1186/1758-3284-1-34",
  pubmedid =     "19761601",
  ISSN =         "1758-3284",
  abstract =     "Cancer poses a massive health burden with incidence
                 rates expected to double globally over the next decade.
                 In the United Kingdom screening programmes exists for
                 cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer. The ability to
                 screen individuals for solid malignant tumours using
                 only a peripheral blood sample would revolutionise
                 cancer services and permit early diagnosis and
                 intervention. Raman spectroscopy interrogates native
                 biochemistry through the interaction of light with
                 matter, producing a high definition biochemical
                 'fingerprint' of the target material. This paper
                 explores the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to
                 discriminate between cancer and non-cancer patients
                 through a peripheral blood sample. Forty blood samples
                 were obtained from patients with Head and Neck cancer
                 and patients with respiratory illnesses to act as a
                 positive control. Raman spectroscopy was carried out on
                 all samples with the resulting spectra being used to
                 build a classifier in order to distinguish between the
                 cancer and respiratory patients' spectra; firstly using
                 principal component analysis (PCA)/linear discriminant
                 analysis (LDA), and secondly with a genetic
                 evolutionary algorithm. The PCA/LDA classifier gave a
                 65percent sensitivity and specificity for
                 discrimination between the cancer and respiratory
                 groups. A sensitivity score of 75percent with a
                 specificity of 75percent was achieved with a 'trained'
                 evolutionary algorithm. In conclusion this preliminary
                 study has demonstrated the feasibility of using Raman
                 spectroscopy in cancer screening and diagnostics of
                 solid tumours through a peripheral blood sample.
                 Further work needs to be carried out for this technique
                 to be implemented in the clinical setting.",
  notes =        "Also known as \cite{19761601}",
}

Genetic Programming entries for Andrew T Harris Christopher J Needham Christopher J Needham Stephen L Smith Michael A Lones Sheila E Fisher Xuebin Yang Nicola Cooper Jennifer Kirkham D Alastair Smith Dominic P Martin-Hirsch Alec S High

Citations