Neutrality and Self-Adaptation

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  author =       "Christian Igel and Marc Toussaint",
  title =        "Neutrality and Self-Adaptation",
  journal =      "Natural Computing",
  year =         "2003",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  URL =          "",
  URL =          "",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1023/A:1024906105255",
  pages =        "117--132",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, evolutionary
                 computation, genotype-phenotype mapping, neutrality,
                 No-Free-Lunch theorem, redundancy, self-adaptation",
  abstract =     "Neutral genotype-phenotype mappings can be observed in
                 natural evolution and are often used in evolutionary
                 computation. In this article, important aspects of such
                 encodings are analysed.

                 First, it is shown that in the absence of external
                 control neutrality allows a variation of the search
                 distribution independent of phenotypic changes. In
                 particular, neutrality is necessary for
                 self-adaptation, which is used in a variety of
                 algorithms from all main paradigms of evolutionary
                 computation to increase efficiency.

                 Second, the average number of fitness evaluations
                 needed to find a desirable (e.g., optimally adapted)
                 genotype depending on the number of desirable genotypes
                 and the cardinality of the genotype space is derived.
                 It turns out that this number increases only marginally
                 when neutrality is added to an encoding presuming that
                 the fraction of desirable genotypes stays constant and
                 that the number of these genotypes is not too small.",
  notes =        "Article ID: 5126729",

Genetic Programming entries for Christian Igel Marc Toussaint