Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Quadrupedal Animal Animation

Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.4202

  author =       "James E. Murphy",
  title =        "Applications of Evolutionary Computation to
                 Quadrupedal Animal Animation",
  school =       "School of Computer Science and Informatics, University
                 College Dublin",
  year =         "2011",
  address =      "Ireland",
  month =        mar,
  email =        "",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, grammatical
                 evolution, animation, animal locomotion, quadruped,
                 dynamic similarity",
  URL =          "",
  URL =          "",
  size =         "415 pages",
  abstract =     "As humans are familiar with animal movement, a
                 realistic animal animation must imitate this motion.
                 This thesis explores how observations of natural
                 evolution and evolutionary computation can be used to
                 produce realistic quadrupedal animal animations,
                 focusing on the grammar-based Genetic Programming
                 method of Grammatical Evolution (GE).

                 A cross-discipline review of animation systems,
                 biological knowledge and natural computing techniques
                 applicable to animal animation is presented. Focusing
                 on the horse, the construction of both a kinematic and
                 physics-based model is described. The origins and
                 representations of the data used to construct and
                 animate these models are also discussed.

                 GE is applied to animation problems for the first time.
                 Animating physics-based models is complex and a GE
                 motion optimisation system successfully generates
                 realistic, stable motions. Additionally, simple
                 grammars with little domain knowledge generate novel

                 For herd scenes, a GE-based system generates models of
                 varying morphology and automatically optimises motion
                 data for them. GE also evolves motion adjuster
                 functions that dynamically modify limb movement based
                 on the model's velocity. These functions are used in a
                 real-time controllable kinematic animation system, in
                 which a horse model moves with an accurate gait and
                 executes gait transitions when necessary.

                 Overall, the use of GE and natural world observations
                 is found to facilitate the generation of realistic
                 quadrupedal animal animations.",
  notes =        " 10 January

                 Videos which accompany this thesis are available at

Genetic Programming entries for James Murphy