Chromium carbonitride coating produced on DIN 1.2210 steel by thermo-reactive deposition technique: Thermodynamics, kinetics and modeling

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  author =       "Gholamreza Khalaj and Ali Nazari and 
                 Seyyed Mohammad {Mousavi Khoie} and Mohammad Javad Khalaj and 
                 Hesam Pouraliakbar",
  title =        "Chromium carbonitride coating produced on {DIN 1.2210}
                 steel by thermo-reactive deposition technique:
                 Thermodynamics, kinetics and modeling",
  journal =      "Surface and Coatings Technology",
  volume =       "225",
  pages =        "1--10",
  year =         "2013",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Gene
                 expression programming, Duplex surface treatment,
                 Diffusion coatings, TRD",
  ISSN =         "0257-8972",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.02.030",
  URL =          "",
  abstract =     "A duplex surface treatment on DIN 1.2210 steel has
                 been developed involving nitriding and followed by
                 chromium thermo-reactive deposition (TRD) techniques.
                 The TRD process was performed in molten salt bath at
                 550, 625 and 700 C for 1-14h. The process formed a
                 thickness up to 9.5micrometres of chromium carbonitride
                 coatings on a hardened diffusion zone. Characterisation
                 of the coatings by means of scanning electron
                 microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD)
                 indicates that the compact and dense coatings mainly
                 consist of Cr(C,N) and Cr2(C,N) phase. All the growth
                 processes of the chromium carbonitride obtained by TRD
                 technique followed a parabolic kinetics. Activation
                 energy (Q) for the process was estimated to be
                 185.6kJ/mol of chromium carbonitride coating. A model
                 based on genetic programming for predicting the layer
                 thickness of duplex coating of the specimens has been
                 presented. To construct the model, training and testing
                 was conducted by using experimental results from 82
                 specimens. The data used as inputs in genetic
                 programming models were five independent parameters
                 consisting of the pre-nitriding time, ferro-chromium
                 particle size, ferro-chromium weight percent, salt bath
                 temperature and coating time. The training and testing
                 results in genetic programming models illustrated a
                 strong capability for predicting the layer thickness of
                 duplex coating.",

Genetic Programming entries for Gholamreza Khalaj Ali Nazari Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi Khoie Mohammad Javad Khalaj Hesam Pouraliakbar