Numerical simplification for bloat control and analysis of building blocks in genetic programming

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  author =       "David Kinzett and Mark Johnston and Mengjie Zhang",
  title =        "Numerical simplification for bloat control and
                 analysis of building blocks in genetic programming",
  journal =      "Evolutionary Intelligence",
  year =         "2009",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "151--168",
  month =        dec,
  note =         "Special Issue",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Program
                 simplification, Code bloat, Building blocks",
  ISSN =         "1864-5909",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1007/s12065-009-0029-9",
  abstract =     "In tree-based genetic programming, there is a tendency
                 for the size of the programs to increase from
                 generation to generation, a phenomenon known as bloat.
                 It is standard practise to place some form of control
                 on program size either by limiting the number of nodes
                 or the depth of the program trees, or by adding a
                 component to the fitness function that rewards smaller
                 programs (parsimony pressure). Others have proposed
                 directly simplifying individual programs using
                 algebraic methods. In this paper, we add node-based
                 numerical simplification as a tree pruning criterion to
                 control program size. We investigate the effect of
                 on-line program simplification, both algebraic and
                 numerical, on program size and resource usage. We also
                 investigate the distribution of building blocks within
                 a genetic programming population and how this is
                 changed by using simplification. We show that
                 simplification results in reductions in expected
                 program size, memory use and computation time. We also
                 show that numerical simplification performs at least as
                 well as algebraic simplification, and in some cases
                 will outperform algebraic simplification. We further
                 show that although the two on-line simplification
                 methods destroy some existing building blocks, they
                 effectively generate new more diverse building blocks
                 during evolution, which compensates for the negative
                 effect of disruption of building blocks.",
  notes =        "School of Engineering and Computer Science, Victoria
                 University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New

Genetic Programming entries for David Kinzett Mark Johnston Mengjie Zhang