An Analysis of Generalization in XCS with Symbolic Conditions

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  author =       "Pier Luca Lanzi",
  title =        "An Analysis of Generalization in XCS with Symbolic
  booktitle =    "2007 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation",
  year =         "2007",
  editor =       "Dipti Srinivasan and Lipo Wang",
  pages =        "2149--2156",
  address =      "Singapore",
  month =        "25-28 " # sep,
  organization = "IEEE Computational Intelligence Society",
  publisher =    "IEEE Press",
  ISBN =         "1-4244-1340-0",
  file =         "1934.pdf",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1109/CEC.2007.4424738",
  abstract =     "We analyse generalisation in the eXtended Classifier
                 System (XCS) with symbolic conditions, based on genetic
                 programming, briefly XCSGP. We start from the results
                 presented in the literature, which showed that XCSGP
                 could not reach optimality in Boolean problems when
                 classifier conditions involved logical disjunctions. We
                 apply a new implementation of XCSGP to the learning of
                 Boolean functions and show that our version can
                 actually reach optimality even when disjunctions are
                 allowed in classifier conditions. We analyse the
                 evolved generalisations and explain why logical
                 disjunctions can make the learning more difficult in
                 XCS models and why our version performs better than the
                 earlier one. Then, we show that in problems that allow
                 many generalizations, so that or clauses are less
                 'convenient', XCSGP tends to develop solutions that do
                 not exploit logical disjunctions as much as one might
                 expect. However, when the problems allow few
                 generalizations, so that or clauses become an
                 interesting way to introduce simple generalizations,
                 XCSGP exploit them so as to evolve more compact
  notes =        "CEC 2007 - A joint meeting of the IEEE, the EPS, and
                 the IET.

                 IEEE Catalog Number: 07TH8963C",

Genetic Programming entries for Pier Luca Lanzi