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@InProceedings{Li:2012:CECc, title = "A Continuous Estimation of Distribution Algorithm by Evolving Graph Structures Using Reinforcement Learning", author = "Xianneng Li and Bing Li and Shingo Mabu and Kotaro Hirasawa", pages = "2097--2104", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation", year = "2012", editor = "Xiaodong Li", month = "10-15 " # jun, DOI = "doi:10.1109/CEC.2012.6256481", address = "Brisbane, Australia", ISBN = "0-7803-8515-2", keywords = "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Genetic Network Programming, Estimation of distribution algorithms, Adaptive dynamic programming and reinforcement learning, Representation and operators", abstract = "A novel graph-based Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) named Probabilistic Model Building Genetic Network Programming (PMBGNP) has been proposed. Inspired by classical EDAs, PMBGNP memorises the current best individuals and uses them to estimate a distribution for the generation of the new population. However, PMBGNP can evolve compact programs by representing its solutions as graph structures. Therefore, it can solve a range of problems different from conventional ones in EDA literature, such as data mining and Reinforcement Learning (RL) problems. This paper extends PMBGNP from discrete to continuous search space, which is named PMBGNP-AC. Besides evolving the node connections to determine the optimal graph structures using conventional PMBGNP, Gaussian distribution is used for the distribution of continuous variables of nodes. The mean value mu and standard deviation sigma are constructed like those of classical continuous Population-based incremental learning (PBILc). However, a RL technique, i.e., Actor-Critic (AC), is designed to update the parameters (mu and sigma). AC allows us to calculate the Temporal-Difference (TD) error to evaluate whether the selection of the continuous value is better or worse than expected. This scalar reinforcement signal can decide whether the tendency to select this continuous value should be strengthened or weakened, allowing us to determine the shape of the probability density functions of the Gaussian distribution. The proposed algorithm is applied to a RL problem, i.e., autonomous robot control, where the robot's wheel speeds and sensor values are continuous. The experimental results show the superiority of PMBGNP-AC comparing with the conventional algorithms.", notes = "WCCI 2012. CEC 2012 - A joint meeting of the IEEE, the EPS and the IET.", }

Genetic Programming entries for Xianneng Li Bing Li Shingo Mabu Kotaro Hirasawa