Prediction of GDP growth rate based on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.4420

  author =       "Vladislav Marjanovic and Milos Milovancevic and 
                 Igor Mladenovic",
  title =        "Prediction of {GDP} growth rate based on carbon
                 dioxide (CO2) emissions",
  journal =      "Journal of {CO2} Utilization",
  volume =       "16",
  pages =        "212--217",
  year =         "2016",
  ISSN =         "2212-9820",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1016/j.jcou.2016.07.009",
  URL =          "",
  abstract =     "The environment that governs the relationships between
                 carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and gross domestic
                 product (GDP) changes over time due to variations in
                 economic growth, regulatory policy and technology. The
                 relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide
                 emissions is considered as one of the most important
                 empirical relationships. However, rigorous economic
                 causal analysis of the tradeoff between carbon dioxide
                 (CO2) emissions and economic growth for credible
                 climate change policies is still limited. The purpose
                 of this research is to develop and apply the Extreme
                 Learning Machine (ELM) to predict GDP based on CO2
                 emissions. The ELM results are compared with genetic
                 programming (GP) and artificial neural network (ANN).
                 The reliability of the computational models was
                 accessed based on simulation results and using several
                 statistical indicators. Coefficients of determination
                 for ELM, ANN and GP methods were 0.9271, 0.8756 and
                 0.4475, respectively. Based upon simulation results, it
                 is demonstrated that ELM can be used effectively in
                 applications of GDP forecasting.",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Economic
                 growth, Carbon dioxide, Prediction, Extreme learning

Genetic Programming entries for Vladislav Marjanovic Milos Milovancevic Igor Mladenovic