Cellular ``bauplans'': Evolving unicellular forms by means of Julia sets and Pickover biomorphs

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  author =       "Nelly Selem Mojica and Jorge Navarro and 
                 Pedro C. Marijuan and Rafael Lahoz-Beltra",
  title =        "Cellular ``bauplans'': Evolving unicellular forms by
                 means of Julia sets and Pickover biomorphs",
  journal =      "Biosystems",
  volume =       "98",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--30",
  year =         "2009",
  ISSN =         "0303-2647",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2009.07.002",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T2K-4WRD3P1-1/2/9d1dc224fa7f3b0696e38abe5aec4a63",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Cellular
                 bauplans, Pickover biomorphs, Morphogenetic field,
                 Julia set, Evolving fractal, Cytoskeletal mechanical
                 forces, Organismic form",
  abstract =     "The universe of cellular forms has received scarce
                 attention by mainstream neo-Darwinian views. The
                 possibility that a fundamental trait of biological
                 order may consist upon, or be guided by, developmental
                 processes not completely amenable to natural selection
                 was more akin to previous epochs of biological thought,
                 i.e. the 'bauplan' discussion. Thirty years ago,
                 however, Lynn and Tucker studied the biological
                 mechanisms responsible for defining organelles position
                 inside cells. The fact that differentiated structures
                 performing a specific function within the eukaryotic
                 cell (i.e. mitochondrion, vacuole, or chloroplast) were
                 occupying specific positions in the protoplasm was the
                 observational and experimental support of the
                 [`]morphogenetic field' notion at the cellular level.
                 In the present paper we study the morphogenetic field
                 evolution yielding from an initial population of
                 undifferentiated cells to diversified unicellular
                 organisms as well as specialised eukaryotic cell types.
                 The cells are represented as Julia sets and Pickover
                 biomorphs, simulating the effect of Darwinian natural
                 selection with a simple genetic algorithm. The
                 morphogenetic field 'defines' the locations where cells
                 are differentiated or sub-cellular components (or
                 organelles) become organised. It may be realised by
                 different possibilities, one of them by diffusing
                 chemicals along the Turing model. We found that
                 Pickover cells show a higher diversity of size and form
                 than those populations evolved as Julia sets. Another
                 novelty is the way that cellular organelles and cell
                 nucleus fill in the cell, always in dependence on the
                 previous cell definition as Julia set or Pickover
                 biomorph. Our findings support the existence of
                 specific attractors representing the functional and
                 stable form of a differentiated cell--genuine cellular
                 bauplans. The configuration of the morphogenetic field
                 is 'attracted' towards one or another attractor
                 depending on the environmental influences as modelled
                 by a particular fitness function. The model promotes
                 the classical discussions of D'Arcy Thompson and the
                 more recent views of Waddington, Goodwin and others
                 that consider organisms as dynamical systems that
                 evolve through a [`]master plan' of transformations,
                 amenable to natural selection. Intriguingly, the model
                 also connects with current developments on
                 mechanobiology, highlighting the
                 informational-developmental role that cytoskeletons may
  notes =        "GA uses complex mathematical functions",

Genetic Programming entries for Nelly Selem Mojica Jorge Navarro Pedro C Marijuan Rafael Lahoz-Beltra