LAMED -- A PRNG for EPC Class-1 Generation-2 RFID specification

Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.4216

  author =       "Pedro Peris-Lopez and Julio Cesar Hernandez-Castro and 
                 Juan M. Estevez-Tapiador and Arturo Ribagorda",
  title =        "LAMED -- A PRNG for EPC Class-1 Generation-2 RFID
  journal =      "Computer Standards \& Interfaces",
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "88--97",
  year =         "2009",
  ISSN =         "0920-5489",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1016/j.csi.2007.11.013",
  URL =          "",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, RFID, EPC,
                 Security, PRNG, Lightweight cryptography",
  abstract =     "RFID is a relatively heterogenous radio technology,
                 where it is necessary to put an extra effort on
                 security and privacy-related issues. As early as 2004,
                 some authors suggested the use of a PRNG for increasing
                 security. This was later questioned because many
                 thought a PRNG implementation may go well beyond the
                 very limited computational capabilities of low-cost
                 RFID tags. However, its use has been ratified by
                 EPCGlobal (EPC Class-1 Generation-2) and ISO (ISO/IEC
                 18000-6C). This motivates our proposal of a new PRNG,
                 named LAMED, which is compliant with the standards and
                 successfully passes several batteries of very demanding
                 randomness tests (ENT, DIEHARD, NIST, and SEXTON). A
                 study of its hardware complexity shows that LAMED can
                 be implemented with slightly less than 1.6 K gates, and
                 that pseudo-random numbers can be generated each 1.8
                 millisecond. So we can affirm this is a realist
                 proposal both conforming with the EPC-G1C2 standard,
                 and suitable for low-cost RFID tags.",
  size =         "10 pages",
  notes =        "lil-gp. rotate, xor, and, or, not, 32-bit sum. Two
                 inputs supplied by Merssenne-Twister Fitness based on
                 chi-squared significance test deviation from strict
                 avalanche criterion [forre,1990]. 2000 generations.
                 Tree size limited to 65 nodes. Exceeds spec.


Genetic Programming entries for Pedro Peris-Lopez Julio Cesar Hernandez-Castro Juan Manuel Estevez-Tapiador D Arturo Ribagorda Garnacho