Residual Stress Field Analysis and Prediction in Nitrided Tool Steel

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  author =       "Bojan Podgornik and Vojteh Leskovsek and 
                 Miha Kovacic and Josef Vizintin",
  title =        "Residual Stress Field Analysis and Prediction in
                 Nitrided Tool Steel",
  journal =      "Materials and Manufacturing Processes",
  year =         "2011",
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "1097--1103",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Forming,
                 Microhardness, Nitriding, Residual, Stresses, Tools",
  ISSN =         "1042-6914",
  URL =          "",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1080/10426914.2010.525573",
  abstract =     "Residual stresses are present in engineering
                 components as an unintended consequence of
                 manufacturing processes, but they are also deliberately
                 introduced to beneficial effect during surface
                 engineering procedures. Plasma nitriding is a process
                 of particular importance for forming tools and dies,
                 giving significant advantages in wear, and fatigue
                 resistance through the generation of near-surface
                 compressive residual stresses. A precise knowledge of
                 the level and distribution of residual stresses that
                 exist in engineering components is necessary for an
                 accurate design and prediction of a component's fatigue
                 resistance. However, measurement of residual stresses
                 is not always possible, which is especially true for
                 forming tools. Therefore, other methods for residual
                 stress evaluation and prediction are required.

                 Results of this investigation show that residual stress
                 level and depth in plasma nitrided tool steel increase
                 with nitriding time and temperature. On the other hand,
                 experimental data indicates that the residual stress
                 distribution in plasma nitrided tool steels can be
                 determined on the basis of microhardness depth
                 distribution. A minimum in the microhardness depth
                 profile derived over depth corresponds to the location
                 of the compressive residual stress maximum.
                 Furthermore, the residual stress level can be
                 extrapolated by using reference residual stress data
                 and genetic programming. In this way the residual
                 stress level and distribution can be obtained even for
                 components where measurement is not possible.",

Genetic Programming entries for Bojan Podgornik Vojteh Leskovsek Miha Kovacic Josef Vizintin