Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an Immersive Virtual Environment

Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.4549

  author =       "Mel Slater and Aitor Rovira and Richard Southern and 
                 David Swapp and Jian J. Zhang and Claire Campbell and 
                 Mark Levine",
  title =        "Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an
                 Immersive Virtual Environment",
  journal =      "PLoS ONE",
  year =         "2013",
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "e52766",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming",
  URL =          "",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052766",
  bibsource =    "OAI-PMH server at",
  language =     "eng",
  oai =          "",
  rights =       "open",
  URL =          "",
  abstract =     "Under what conditions will a bystander intervene to
                 try to stop a violent attack by one person on another?
                 It is generally believed that the greater the size of
                 the crowd of bystanders, the less the chance that any
                 of them will intervene. A complementary model is that
                 social identity is critical as an explanatory variable.
                 For example, when the bystander shares common social
                 identity with the victim the probability of
                 intervention is enhanced, other things being equal.
                 However, it is generally not possible to study such
                 hypotheses experimentally for practical and ethical
                 reasons. Here we show that an experiment that depicts a
                 violent incident at life-size in immersive virtual
                 reality lends support to the social identity
                 explanation. 40 male supporters of Arsenal Football
                 Club in England were recruited for a two-factor
                 between-groups experiment: the victim was either an
                 Arsenal supporter or not (in-group/out-group), and
                 looked towards the participant for help or not during
                 the confrontation. The response variables were the
                 numbers of verbal and physical interventions by the
                 participant during the violent argument. The number of
                 physical interventions had a significantly greater mean
                 in the in-group condition compared to the out-group.
                 The more that participants perceived that the Victim
                 was looking to them for help the greater the number of
                 interventions in the in-group but not in the out-group.
                 These results are supported by standard statistical
                 analysis of variance, with more detailed findings
                 obtained by a symbolic regression procedure based on
                 genetic programming. Verbal interventions made during
                 their experience, and analysis of post-experiment
                 interview data suggest that in-group members were more
                 prone to confrontational intervention compared to the
                 out-group who were more prone to make statements to try
                 to diffuse the situation.",
  notes =        "See also \cite{}",

Genetic Programming entries for Mel Slater Aitor Rovira Richard Southern David Swapp Jian J Zhang Claire Campbell Mark Levine