Modeling the nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth

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  author =       "Guangfei Yang and Tao Sun and Jianliang Wang and 
                 Xianneng Li",
  title =        "Modeling the nexus between carbon dioxide emissions
                 and economic growth",
  journal =      "Energy Policy",
  volume =       "86",
  pages =        "104--117",
  year =         "2015",
  ISSN =         "0301-4215",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.06.031",
  URL =          "",
  abstract =     "The effects of economic growth on the environment have
                 received increased attention as global warming and
                 other environmental problems become more serious. Many
                 empirical studies explain the nexus between carbon
                 dioxide emissions and economic growth with such models
                 as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory.
                 However, the assumptions of these models have never
                 received strict verification with a large available
                 data set and therefore may not be appropriate to
                 describe the relationship. In this study, the nexus is
                 modelled for 67 countries from 1971 to 2010 using a
                 novel symbolic regression method. From the experimental
                 results, several conclusions as follows could be
                 reached. Firstly, there is no universal model fitting
                 every country, and symbolic regression could discover a
                 set of reasonable models for a specific country or
                 region. Secondly, four models, including the inverted
                 N-shaped, M-shaped, inverted U-shaped and monotonically
                 increasing, are frequently found without domain
                 experts' intervention in these countries, whereas the
                 M-shaped model has received little attention in
                 previous studies but exhibits promising performance.
                 Thirdly, the relationship is diversified due to the
                 difference of regions and economic development, where
                 developed countries generally follow the inverted
                 N-shaped and M-shaped models to explain the
                 relationship, whereas developing countries are more
                 likely to refer to the inverted N-shaped, inverted
                 U-shaped and monotonically increasing models. Finally,
                 several policy suggestions are presented.",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Carbon
                 dioxide emissions, Environmental Kuznets curve,
                 Symbolic regression",

Genetic Programming entries for Guangfei Yang Tao Sun Jianliang Wang Xianneng Li