Empirically Based Simulation: The Case of Twin Peaks in National Income

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  author =       "Uwe Cantner and Bernd Ebersberger and 
                 Horst Hanusch and Jens J. Kruger and Andreas Pyka",
  title =        "Empirically Based Simulation: The Case of Twin Peaks
                 in National Income",
  journal =      "The Journal of Artificial Societies and Social
  year =         "2001",
  month =        "30-" # jun,
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, bimodal
                 productivity structure, master equation approach",
  ISSN =         "1460-7425",
  URL =          "http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/4/3/9.html",
  size =         "228 kbytes",
  abstract =     "Only recently a new stylised fact of economic growth
                 has been introduced, the bimodal shape of the
                 distribution of per capita income or the twin-peaked
                 nature of that distribution. Drawing on the
                 Summers/Hestons Penn World Table 5.6 (1991) we
                 determine kernel density distributions which are able
                 to detect the aforementioned twin peaked structure and
                 show that the world income distribution starting with
                 an unimodal structure in 1960 evolves subsequently to a
                 bimodal or twin-peak structure. This empirical results
                 can be explained theoretically by a synergetic model
                 based on the master equation approach as in
                 Pyka/Kruger/Cantner (1999). This paper attempts to
                 extend this discussion by taking the reverse procedure,
                 that is to find empirical evidence for the working
                 mechanism of the theoretical model. We determine
                 empirically the transition rates used in the synergetic
                 approach by applying alternatively NLS to chosen
                 functional forms and genetic programming in order to
                 determine the functional forms and the parameters
                 simultaneously. Using the so determined transition
                 rates in the synergetic model leads in both cases to
                 the emergence of the bimodal distribution, which,
                 however, is only in the latter case a persistent
  notes =        "JASSS",

Genetic Programming entries for Uwe V Cantner Bernd Ebersberger Horst Hanusch Jens J Kruger Andreas Pyka