Evolution of Sidewinding Locomotion of Simulated Limbless, Wheelless Robots

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  author =       "Ivan Tanev and Thomas Ray",
  title =        "Evolution of Sidewinding Locomotion of Simulated
                 Limbless, Wheelless Robots",
  journal =      "Artificial Life and Robotics",
  year =         "2005",
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "117--122",
  month =        jul,
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Locomotion,
                 Open dynamics engine, Side-winding, Snake robot",
  ISSN =         "1433-5298",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1007/s10015-004-0332-6",
  size =         "6 pages",
  abstract =     "Inspired by the efficient method of locomotion of the
                 rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes, the objective of this
                 work was the automatic design through genetic
                 programming of the fastest possible, side-winding
                 locomotion of simulated limbless, wheel less artifacts.
                 The realism of the simulation is ensured by employing
                 open dynamics engine (ODE), which allows accounting for
                 all the physical forces resulting from the actuators
                 (muscles), friction, gravity, collisions, and joint
                 constraints. The empirically obtained results
                 demonstrate that the complex side-winding locomotion
                 emerges from relatively simple motion patterns of
                 morphological segments (vertebrae). The robustness of
                 automatically evolved locomotion is verified by (i) the
                 reasonable performance degradation when partial damage
                 to the artifact is inflicted, and (ii) the ability to
                 tackle obstacles. Contributing to the better
                 understanding of the unique, side-winding locomotion,
                 this work could be considered as a step toward building
                 real limbless, wheelless robots, featuring unique
                 engineering characteristics, which are able to perform
                 robustly in difficult environments.",
  notes =        "This work was presented, in part, at the 9th
                 International Symposium on Artificial Life and
                 Robotics, Oita, Japan, January 28-30, 2004

Genetic Programming entries for Ivan T Tanev Thomas S Ray