might act upon other things besides number, were objects found whose mutual fundamental relations could be expressed by those of the abstract science of operations, and which should be also susceptible of adaptations to the action of the operating notation and mechanism of the engine . . .She suggested, for instance, that using this "abstract science of operations .... the engine might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity or extent." This idea of a virtual (abstract) machine running on a physical (concrete) machine and performing many abstract operations was expanded and refined through developments in computer science and software engineering in the 20th Century, following pioneering work of Alan Turing4 and many others. We now know how to design, make, debug, maintain and sell(!) many kinds of virtual machines including word-processors, email systems, internet browsers, operating systems, planning systems, spelling correctors, teaching packages, data-mining packages, plant control systems, and many more. Many of them outperform humans on specific tasks (e.g. playing chess, statistical analysis), yet there is nothing that combines the capabilities of three year old child, or even a squirrel, or a nest-building bird. The most powerful chess machines cannot discuss or explain their strategies. Animal brains in general and human brains in particular have many capabilities as yet unmatched by anything we know how to build. Can we ever replicate all that functionality? The availability of more powerful computers than ever before, advances in many areas of Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science, and an ever-growing body of research results from Neuroscience and Psychology provide the inspiration for a new concerted attempt at a major leap forward, by developing new deep theories, tested in a succession of increasingly ambitious working models, namely robots combining more and more human abilities, e.g. able to see, manipulate objects, move around, learn, talk about what they are doing, develop self-understanding, think creatively, engage in social interactions and provide both advice and physical help to others when appropriate.