Submitted talk proposal is here
http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects/cogaff/misc/slomanmcls18.html
In addition there are mathematical structures discovered and used much earlier by biological evolution  the blind mathematician.
I don't yet have a good taxonomy but here are some examples:
HOMEOSTASIS:
Use of negative feedback loops in control (e.g. of pressure, temperature,
concentration of particular molecules, direction of motion, and
many more).
The power of this mathematical structure was discovered (and rediscovered many times) by biological evolution long before the Watt governor was discovered.
Compare self orienting windmills...
Another example, choice of direction of motion of a carnivore chasing its prey.
Always heading in the exact current direction of the prey is mathematically suboptimal, except in special cases (... Left as an exercise...)
The discovery of reusable abstract designs of many kinds whose mathematical structures supported biological functions, including:
 reproduction
 growth
 changing control of motion during growth.
 perception of structures and processes that can be used in choosing and achieving goals, e.g. selecting and placing the next part of a partly built nest, and many more:
In order to produce them evolution had to produce new mechanisms used in evolution and in development "CONSTRUCTION KITS" of various sorts.
Figure FCK: The Fundamental Construction Kit
A crude representation of the Fundamental Construction Kit (FCK) (on left)
and
(on right) a collection of trajectories from the FCK
through the space of
possible trajectories to increasingly complex mechanisms.
Increasingly complex Derived Constructino Kits (DCKs)
Some used during construction of individuals within a species
Some used to kick off new species.
The space of possible trajectories for combining basic constituents is enormous, but routes can be shortened and search spaces shrunk by building derived construction kits (DCKs), that are able to assemble larger structures in fewer steps^{7}, as indicated in Fig. DCK.
Figure DCK: Derived Construction Kits
OF FAIRLY COMPLEX ORGANISMS
A SCHEMATIC OVERVIEW
Using many derived construction kits
From Chappell andd sloman 2007.
In particular organisms are able to acquire acquire "modal" information: information about what is and is not possible, and information about necessary consequences of realisation of some possibilities, i.e. mathematical information, e.g. the sorts of discoveries reported by Euclid, some of which individuals can easily make for themselves, e.g.
If a triangle has three equal sides then it must have three equal angles
If a vertex of a triangle moves closer to the opposite side,
the area of the triangle must decrease.
http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects/cogaff/misc/triangletheorem.html
Information about geometry and topology recorded by Euclid (and his predecessors and successors) has NOTHING to do with probabilities, which happen to be the main focus of most fashionable research on intelligent systems.
Going back to earlier organisms: evolution produced organisms able to acquire
and use more and more varieties of information:
 immediately usable control information
 information that can be used after it is acquired
 information about an need to seek new information
 information about extended terrain, not just immediate environment
 information about what is where even when it is not being perceived, and how
to get to some items even when they are not perceived (e.g. learnt routes to
sources of food, liquid, shelter, danger, etc.).

 We know how to make machines that can acquire and use some types of
information, but not others: e.g. information about what is possible or
impossible, e.g. theorems in Euclidean geometry and topology.
Note: A presentation of Turing's main ideas for nonmathematicians can be found in
Philip Ball, 2015, "Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) `The chemical basis of morphogenesis'",
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0218
Maintained by
Aaron Sloman
School of Computer Science
The University of Birmingham