Linux Poplog Version 16 is ready for testing:
After required linux libraries have been installed[*],
a single script fetches and installs Poplog V16[*]

News and bugreports/fixes
(Installed 6 Jan 2020 -- last updated 24 Aug 2020)
New install script 20 Aug 2020

Overview, downloadable packages and set-up scripts
Originally Installed here: 6 Dec 2019
This is still a DRAFT version, with too much repetition -- to be fixed later!

Combined effors of several members of the pop-forum list have produced a diagnosis and a fix, enabling poplog to run. However, the fix has not yet been included in the standard download/install system for temporary instructions see the warning below.

Please report errors, omissions, duplications and other infelicities to A.S.
List of linux systems on which this has been tested so far.

Core content for 64-bit Poplog (Poplog V16) was provided on Github by
   Waldek Hebisch (Mathematical Institute, University of Wroclaw, Poland)
   Older information about his Poplog related information is at:

V16 is packaged for easy download and installation, including additional documentation, teaching and application packages,
   by Aaron Sloman, School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham
   (email: a.sloman[At]

Information about downloading and installing Poplog V16 is below.
Older Poplog related information is at:

This document is:
Including some information for curious experts -- that can be ignored by most users.
(Location and format may change later.)

Date installed (above)
This contents list
Background -- For first time viewers
POP11/POP-11: The core language of Poplog, used to implement the other languages
New 64 bit Linux Poplog: Version 16
The latest version of Poplog: Poplog version 16 (64 bit) 2019
Getting and installing Poplog V16
Space required for Poplog
Installers vs Users
Prerequisites: Install required Linux libraries/Packages
Installation/Setup Summary
On a shared workstation or server
Installing Poplog using ''
   A file USEPOP in the poplog_base directory.
   Additional scripts
   Brief tests after installation
   Alter Popsitename if Ved is to be use for mail
Vision and Neural Packages
Poplog user initialisation directory $poplib
More online information
Testing the default installed saved images
A subset of online Poplog information sources
Allan Ramsay's overview in 1984
Anthony Worrall's Poplog help site (Reading University)
Contributions by Robin Popplestone
System Documentation (e.g. porting or rebuilding Poplog)
Joining Pop-forum

A taste of the history of Poplog

Poplog Plaque
Integral Solutions Ltd (ISL -- Managing Director Alan Montgomery) and Sussex University won this ICP award in 1992, for having achieved Poplog sales of five million dollars. It was associated with a UK Government SMART award.

"Poplog is an Open Source, reflective, incrementally compiled software development environment for the programming languages POP-11, Common Lisp, Prolog, and Standard ML, originally created in the UK for teaching and research in Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex, and later marketed as a commercial package for software development as well as for teaching and research. It was one of the initiatives supported for a while by the UK government-funded Alvey Programme."
See also:
More detailed, but partly out of date descriptions at the University of Birmingham:

Steven Leach, who had previously used Poplog while working as a software engineer
at GEC UK then HP research, and had also made significant contributions to Poplog,
gave an invited talk on Poplog at ECOOP in London in July 2019
ECOOP: POPLOG-a-pioneering-multi-language-multi-paradigm-development-toolkit
(The web site wrongly mentions Reims: It was in London!)

POP11/POP-11, the core language of Poplog, was used to implement the other languages
For more information on Pop-11, the core language of Poplog:
    Waldek Hebisch on Pop-11:
    The Pop-11 Primer (produced at Sussex and Birmingham Universities)

Hakan Kjellerstrand also has online information about Poplog, especially Pop-11, including tutorials.
See (Includes Pop-11 examples.)
      "The Pop-11 programming language and Poplog environment"
      "Off topic: The Pop-11 programming language and Poplog environment"

For a technical overview of Poplog's internals (mainly designed by John Gibson). See
  Robert Smith, Aaron Sloman, John Gibson,
  POPLOG's two-level virtual machine support for interactive languages,
  Research Directions in Cognitive Science Volume 5: Artificial Intelligence,
  Eds. D. Sleeman and N. Bernsen, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 203--231, 1992,

There is a considerable amount of information about Poplog and Pop-11 included
in the Poplog package, including many Programming and AI tutorials.

Books on Pop-11
Ben du Boulay, at Sussex University has a list of books on Pop-11 (mostly aimed at
students learning AI)
This is his list:

BARRETT, R., RAMSAY, A. AND SLOMAN, A. (1985) POP-11: A practical language for Artificial
Intelligence, Ellis Horwood and Wiley. (QE 1690 Pop). The first book ever written on
POP-11. It is especially useful on the more advanced features of the language, but is not
as systematic as Laventhol.

BURTON, M and SHADBOLT, N. (1987) POP-11 programming for Artificial Intelligence,
Addison-Wesley. (QE 1690 Pop). More of an introductory textbook in style, concerned to
teach AI rather than Pop-11. But some absolute beginners find it helpful.

COGNITIVE APPLICATIONS (1987) AlphaPop POP-11 Language Guide and Reference Manual,
Cognitive Applications Ltd. A very clear textbook and separate guide to the main functions
originally provided with the AlphaPop version of POP-11 for Macs.

GAZDAR, G. and MELLISH, C. (1989) Natural Language Processing in POP-11: an Introduction
to Computational Linguistics. Addison-Wesley. (P 98 Gaz). A textbook with extensive
natural language processing examples.

LAVENTHOL, J. (1987) Programming in POP-11, Blackwell. (QZ 1345 Pop). A textbook covering
POP-11 from scratch, with good suggestions regarding programming style. Some parts may be
difficult for beginners.

SHARPLES, M. et al. (1989) Computers and Thought, MIT Press. (QZ 1250 Com) An introductory
textbook on AI and cognitive science, based largely on POP-11. Also available at

RAMSAY, A. and BARRETT, R.(1987) Artificial Intelligence in practice: examples in POP-11
Ellis Horwood and John Wiley, 1987. This is a more advanced book on AI and Pop-11, and is
probably only of interest once you already know Pop-11 pretty well, and are quite skilled
in it.

THORNTON, C. and DU BOULAY, B. (1992) Artificial Intelligence Through Search, Intellect.
(QZ 1250 Tho). A textbook introduction basic AI through POP11 and through Prolog programs.
Also available at


New 64 BIT LINUX POPLOG: Version 16
December 2019
Thanks to a massive effort by
    Waldek Hebisch (Mathematical Institute, University of Wroclaw, Poland)
Poplog V16 is the first 'solid/complete' 64 bit Poplog for linux on PC hardware.
It can also be installed on shared linux servers based on AMD64/X86-64 processors.
(Installation instructions are below.)

In 2005 he had produced a 64 bit version of Poplog that some people found
useful, but there were some loose ends. It was announced here:
but is superseded by Poplog V16.

He also has a draft port of Poplog to 32-bit Arm available here:

BACKGROUND (not essential reading):
Commercially available Poplog sold by Sussex University and ISL
Between 1981 and the late 1990s Poplog (initially only Pop11, then Pop11+Prolog, with
Common Lisp, and ML added later) was produced mainly at Sussex and distributed and
supported by ISL. That included previously available implementations for 64
bit SPARC, Dec-Alpha, MIPS, IBM servers, HP workstations, Apollo servers, Sequent
Symmetry, and a few others, were produced by Sussex University in collaboration with ISL,
who marketed Poplog, supported customers and helped with development of Poplog for several
years. Unfortunately those machines, though powerful, were too expensive for individuals
to buy.

The low cost, low functionality, IBM PC, appeared in the early 1980s and was sold very widely
because of its low price and association with IBM. This lost Poplog many academic users
who could not afford to buy the better equipped machines required to run Poplog.

Later, PC hardware improved and the development of Linux on PCs led to the development of
Linux Poplog (running on 32 bit linux), which became available after ISL were were bought
by SPSS, and stopped selling poplog. Linux poplog helped to keep poplog alive, though only
in a small number of places. 64-bit Linux Poplog V16 is potentially usable for many more

There was also a Port of Pop-11 to Apple hardware, called Alphapop, sold by Cognitive
Applications Ltd.

THE LATEST VERSION OF POPLOG: POPLOG VERSION 16 (64 bit) 2019 32-bit linux Poplog re-implemented for 64-bit (AMD64 / X86-64) architectures. The core of 64 bit Poplog is available for expert users on Github, here: This document extends that version with extra documentation and code libraries at the University of Birmingham Poplog site, to produce a "full" Poplog V16, with a simple to use installation script, after installing the prerequisite linux libraries, listed in: Also summarised below). GETTING AND INSTALLING POPLOG V16 The Birmingham version of Poplog V16 is based on the Hebisch implementation, packaged here for non-expert users to download and install, as explained below. It also includes additional demonstration and tutorial materials, and toolkits implemented in Poplog, including the Birmingham SimAgent Toolkit and other packages previously available with 32 bit poplog, almost all of which can be used unchanged with V16. The exceptions are the vision and neural libraries by David Young, which need to be changed to use 64 bit versions of linux linear algebra packages (Blas and Lapack). At present the installation is, by default, linked without access to motif graphical libraries. If you wish to use motif (e.g. to run the Poplog_UI interface toolkit, then you make sure motif is installed on your system (as explained in the Prequisites section below and then after installing Poplog relink it to access motif using the command given below, (also printed out when the initial installation is complete). Re-linking and rebuilding saved images should take at most a few seconds on a modern machine. Instructions follow for downloading and installing 64 bit Poplog and the linux libraries that it requires. (To be revised or extended later. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.) SPACE REQUIRED FOR POPLOG Depending on whether all or some of the Poplog system is installed, and which additional linux libraries are required, the space required for a working Poplog development environment on Linux may be somewhere between 100MB (after removal of downloaded tar files) and 200MB (or more, e.g. depending on how many different linux system libraries are added, and how many 'saved images' are built, ready to run without compiling sources). My current Poplog V16 directory tree (starting at poplog_base without the files used to generate it) has size 105MB (shown by 'du -sh'). That doesn't include the linux (in this case Fedora) libraries installed earlier to support Poplog. (See the "Prerequisites" listed below.) The size includes various *.o and *.w files in pop11 src directories created during system construction that could be deleted. Deleting the *.o and *.w files saves about 8MB. Installations with additional optional linux libraries may have significant additional file store requirements. E.g. the linux lapack and blas linear algebra libraries are required by the Poplog vision package summarised here: (The documentation included in the 64 bit Poplog system may eventually be more up to date.) INSTALLERS VS USERS After Poplog has been installed on a local machine or network with shared filestore, individual users will need only startup scripts, not installation scripts. The following instructions are for a local Poplog system manager. They are also relevant to users who manage personal machines and are both installers and users. INFORMATION FOR END-USERS Instructions for users after a full Poplog has been installed are below. PREREQUISITES: INSTALL REQUIRED LINUX LIBRARIES/PACKAGES Before installing Poplog, install linux libraries required as instructed in The instructions vary according to which version of Linux is being used. The instructions also provide scripts to perform installation of linux libraries required (which differ for different versions of linux/unix) before installing Poplog. For Poplog V16 there are also "combined" scripts, to (a) fetch and install required linux libraries and then (b) download and install Poplog. This has not yet been done for all versions of linux. (See the required packages above.) Please send A.Sloman information about how to install the corresponding linux packages on versions of linux not mentioned there. If you get this running on a Windows PC with linux support please consider submitting advice for others to follow. INSTALLATION/SETUP SUMMARY Poplog is location independent, e.g. it does not need to be installed in standard linux directories, such as /usr/lib, /usr/lib64, /usr/bin etc., though users may make use of those directories if they wish. The instructions below assume that Poplog is installed in the directory /usr/local/poplog/V16 and 'unpacked' there. If another directory is to be used (e.g. a user's own login directory) change path names appropriately. A linux (bash) script (, below) is provided that can be downloaded by users and installed in any directory on the local machine. When the script is run, it creates a new directory poplog_base and installs poplog there. The path name of that poplog_base directory will later be held in the linux environment variable $usepop, from which all other pathnames required for running Poplog can be derived. On a shared workstation or server Different users sharing the same machine can install Poplog at different locations, though it is more efficient to share one installation of the Poplog system and have different local libraries for each user. Different users will then use different lists of path names for various parts of Poplog, e.g. different 'teach', 'help', 'ref' and code library search lists, and different collections of saved images. INSTALLING POPLOG using '' The installation process has several phases, previously requiring different user actions, but now performed first by installing required linux libraries as specified above, then fetching and running a single script,, which performs the Poplog installation by downloading and running other scripts as needed. There are also scripts to combine the two stages, on common versions of linux, though not yet all. GETPOPLOG.SH The installation script '' makes installing Poplog very simple (after the system library requirements (above) have been satisfied). WARNING: If you plan to install poplog on a version of linux with a kernel version that is later than V5.6, please write and ask for interim instructions, until this note has been removed. He will provide you with modified instructions to be used until the standard files and installation mechanisms have been updated. After installing OS-dependent packages, install Poplog thus: -- Decide in which directory (private or shared) you would like to install Poplog, e.g. in a shared directory such as      /usr/local/poplog or in a personal, private directory. Download and run the script in that installation directory, to fetch program and documentation files and then complete the installation, as explained below. (But note the warning about kernel changes, in blue, above.) -- Fetch the script (below) and make it executable (chmod) (Note the point about the -nopie flag) The 'master' installation script is available for download here: The script can be viewed in a web browser here: (Suggestions for improvement are welcome.) To download it, do this in the chosen installation directory: wget and make it executable, e.g. chmod 755 NB [These installation instructions may be revised later.] Run it with or without the flag -nopie, depending whether you use a recent version of linux, e.g. Arch, or recent ubuntu or debian, that does not allow "position independent execution" (PIE). I.e. ./ -nopie or ./ If you don't know which one to use try the first version, which seems to be what most recent versions of linux require, or tolerate. If it reports a failure, delete the downloaded files and try the second version, which is required for some of the newer linux releases. On Fedora it doesn't seem to matter whether the flag is set or not. Depending on your internet speed and the speed of your machine, the process may take less than a minute, or a few minutes. When it has completed it prints out the instructions below to set up local search paths, etc. Expert programmers should read the script first and report any obvious errors, or lack of clarity! At present, the script fetches four installation files with different functions: -- (Provides the core Poplog files and installation scripts, mostly derived from the github Poplog site of Waldek Hebisch.) -- Essential Poplog user documentation not yet in the github package, copied from the Birmingham (UK!) Poplog installation. -- Various tutorial and application packages and additional documentation provided by past users and collected at Birmingham University. -- A script to use all the downloaded files to build a new Poplog installation. Previously build_all.csh. Now replaced by after correction of faulty version by Waldek Hebisch -- downloads the above files to the current location, then creates the main installation directory poplog_base by untarring: The script continues by running in the poplog_base directory. It rebuilds the Poplog system downloaded from github, then uses the other tar files to install documentation files, the packages directory, and 'startup' information for local Poplog users (specifying the $usepop environment variable, and additional environment variables and local directories to be accessed by Poplog users. -- A file USEPOP in poplog_base is created containing the main pathname needed later for the run_time environment variable $usepop, which specifies the root of the directory tree containing all the core Poplog program libraries, the editor, documentation files, executables, saved images. etc. The file is created by the installation process, in the poplog_base directory, by doing: cd poplog_base pwd > USEPOP If you use sh or bash you can later set $usepop with this command run in the poplog_base directory: export usepop=`cat USEPOP` csh/tcsh users can do this instead: setenv usepop `cat USEPOP` In both cases this should print out the full path name: echo $usepop If Poplog is installed at /usr/local/poplog/V16/ then the 'echo $usepop' command, performed anywhere should print out /usr/local/poplog/v16/poplog_base -- Once everything has been installed and $usepop set, a collection of required environment variables can be set up as follows (e.g. in the user's login script if Poplog is used regularly): sh/bash users source $usepop/pop/com/ csh/tcsh users can do: source $usepop/pop/com/poplog.csh IF YOU WISH TO USE POPLOG WITH MOTIF Then make sure you have the linux motif (developer) libraries installed, included in the prerequisite lists. Then, after the above installation has been completed and you have set up the $usepop environment variable, you can relink poplog with motif, using this command: $usepop/pop/src/newpop -link -x=-xm -norsv On a modern machine it should not take more than a few seconds. HOW INSTALLATION WORKS: -- After downloading the above 'install' script,, the installation script ( unpacks this previously downloaded file: which prepares the system installation directory poplog_base described above, including Waldek's code for generating a working Poplog system. -- To complete the installation, changes directory to poplog_base and in there runs the above script, which can be inspected in a web browser here: The downloaded script must be run in the poplog_base directory. It first uses the Poplog program sources in a two stage process: build_pop0 to create the 'bootstrap' corepop executable, which is then used in build_pop1 to set up the rest of the core Poplog system, including creating the saved images that enable pop11, prolog, standard ML (pml), and Common Lisp (clisp) to be invoked by users. Then build_all creates two 'trace' files buildout1 and buildout2 recording all output created by running the build_pop0 and build_pop1 scripts. The trace files can be ignored, unless the installation does not work, in which case the files may provide essential clues regarding what went wrong. (These mechanisms were designed by Waldek Hebisch -- I have merely packaged them for users wanting a complete system.) NOTE: Waldek provided user instructions for the final stage in a bash script which I found could not be run by the main install script. Neither could I run it manually after running Instead I had to 'source' it when the had finished. I then found that if it was translated to a .csh script, build_all.csh, mentioned above I could run that script instead of sourcing it. The build_all.csh script is now run by the main install script,, to automate the whole installation process. Summary: When run, the top-level '' script, with or without '-nopie', downloads several compressed tar files, including a core Poplog installation package provided by Waldek Hebisch, based on his github site, plus several extensions providing documentation and additional libraries, downloaded from the Birmingham Poplog repository. Later it may be possible to fetch everything from github. A directory poplog_base is created in the directory in which the download script is run. After installation (unpacking source files and running installation scripts) that directory's path name must be assigned to the environment variable usepop by all users wishing to run Poplog programs. (Start-up scripts to be sourced by users can later do that assignment.) Poplog experts with specific needs may wish to modify the commands suggested or scripts provided, above. NOTE: Part of the download and installation will need to be repeated if a new version of core Poplog with corrections or additions becomes available. It will be available from github, for expert users. Others may wish to repeat this complete installation with the new version, after saving any local additions. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE INSTALLED FILES (For experts, local system-managers, or curious users.) Reminder: the installation must be preceded by ensuring that required linux packages are installed, namely those listed here: The above installation instructions will download and use or install the following Poplog files and installation scripts. Poplog-specific tar files used for installation, downloaded by the above script are: The latest core Poplog package provided by Waldek Hebisch, currently: Includes a recent fix to sys_host_name.p (December 2019) - Poplog documentation and tutorial files from Birmingham (and Sussex, earlier): (Later these may be included in an integrated package, perhaps on Github, simplifying installation.) - The Poplog "packages" system from Birmingham, designed to be added to an installation of the core Poplog system, providing a collection of packages with teaching materials, utilities, specialist program libraries, and demonstrations. (Unwanted packages can be removed later. Users can add locally developed packages to the $usepop/pop/packages directory tree, following instructions included in the packages directory. This provides additional teaching and demonstration materials and task-specific libraries extending Poplog, organised as a collection of packages linked in a 'super-package'. It may require reorganisation (and pruning?) later. - The Poplog bash installation script with instructions provided by Waldek: For some reason that script can only be 'sourced' not 'run' (on my machines), so it has been translated into a tcsh version which is run by the main installation script ''. - Setup user environment variables Users of Poplog will need to define the environment variable usepop used during installation or when running of Poplog programs. Two shell scripts will be provided for that purpose, one for bash/sh users and one for tcsh/csh users. $usepop specifies the local path name of the top-level directory of a running Poplog system. E.g. if the instructions for download here are followed without change, $usepop could be /usr/local/poplog/V16/poplog_base Several other environment variables and commands used during installation and use of Poplog are based on $usepop, some explained below. There are also 'setup' commands including scripts setting up environment variables and path names used by various portions of Poplog. Users need not know about them: they will be sourced by Poplog setup scripts. [NOTE THE NEED FOR SECURITY PRECAUTIONS, ESPECIALLY ON SHARED MACHINES Poplog probably needs a security project] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ INFORMATION FOR END-USERS Once the environment variable $usepop bas been set up, using the file USEPOP, all the derived environment variables can be set up in the individual's working environment, as follows: For bash or sh users: source $usepop/pop/com/ For tcsh or csh users: source $usepop/pop/com/poplog.csh After that, Poplog commands will work from any directory (during that session), e.g. pop11 prolog clisp pml and commands to create and use new Poplog saved images (in $usepop/pop/lib/psv or a user directory) that can then be run by commands like pop11 +my-image ADDITIONAL SCRIPTS: There are additional scripts for building saved images, in the pop/com subdirectory, starting with 'mk'. Please read them carefully before running them to make sure you are getting what you want. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ BRIEF TESTS AFTER INSTALLATION: Try running basepop11 It should print out something like: Sussex Poplog (Version 16.0 Tue 3 Dec 00:31:55 GMT 2019) Copyright (c) 1982-1999 University of Sussex. All rights reserved. Try: 3 + 6 => sqrt(2) => (The numerical resolution used, and the printing resolution can be changed.) vars list; [The girl had learnt Pop11] matches [The girl ??list] => should print out ** <true> list => should print out ** [had learnt Pop11] Exit Poplog using CTRL-D ALTER POPSITENAME IF VED IS TO BE USE FOR MAIL Change the pop11 variable popsitename if you expect to use the Poplog editor Ved to read and send email message. After the packages directory has been installed as above, this file should be edited, or a local version provided in a local library that will take precedence over the shared libraries: In this file (or a 'local' copy): $usepop/pop/packages/vedmail/auto/popsitename.p Replace the line popsitename = ''; with the domain of your email address, e.g. if you intend to use Ved the Poplog editor to insert the address automatically, e.g. when composing email messages. Vision and Neural Packages NB the Vision and Neural packages contain C code libraries that will need to be rebuilt for 64 bit Poplog. Waldek Hebisch has provided instructions that are included in README files for each of those packages. notes-on-neural-and-vision-libraries.html POPLOG USER INITIALISATION DIRECTORY $poplib Users can create their own Poplog-startup files in a directory whose name is assigned to the environment variable $poplib (which can be different for different users, or different projects using Poplog). If you have set up a Poplog initialisation directory in your home directory, e.g. ~/Poplib/ containing files: init.p (for setting up libraries to be used) vedinit.p (for setting up ved/xved editor preferences They will be compiled when basepop11 (or one of its derivatives e.g. pop11, prolog, clisp, pml) starts up You can now try giving pop11 commands, or running the editor Ved. Learning Pop11 People who are unfamiliar with Pop11 should read the Primer: There are also some online pop11 tutorials some mentioned above, including More online information Experts can do a lot of tailoring and 'setting up' in the initialisation files for the editor and sub-languages. SAMPLE SETUP DEFAULTS Sample (possibly out of date, alas) setup defaults can be found in $usepop/pop/packages/setup/Poplib More information (partly out of date in Poplog V16) is in $usepop/pop/packages/setup/AREADME Internet searches will provide additional Pop11 tutorial information, including: TESTING THE DEFAULT INSTALLED SAVED IMAGES Try these one word linux commands to invoke Poplog in different ways: pop11 ved (starts pop11 in the editor, ved) prolog clisp (common lisp) pml (poplog standard ml) Warning: if you are already a Poplog user and have a startup directory $poplib (e.g. ~/Poplib) the relevant files in there will be compiled, e.g. init.p vedinit.p More detailed documentation is part of the Birmingham Poplog web site: and additional files referenced in those. All of this needs to be cleaned up and brought up to date. In order to ask for help, or report problems (or successes) you can join the pop-forum email list, as explained below. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ A SUBSET OF ONLINE POPLOG INFORMATION SOURCES Alan Ramsay (1984) The POPLOG program development system, in Microprocessors and Microsystems, Vol 8, Issue 7, September 1984, Pages 368-373 Allan Ramsay describes an AI programming environment that supports three different languages with almost equal commitment (Written before ML was added to Poplog) Anthony Worrall's Poplog help site Anthony Worrall has an online Poplog help directory at Reading University: Contributions by Robin Popplestone Added: 10 Dec 2019 (Updated 4 Jan 2020) Robin Popplestone developed some of the key ideas in Poplog in his early work, described in The Early Development of POP The ideas were later expanded while he was in Edinburgh, and implemented in the Edinburgh AI language Pop-2. R.M. Burstall, R.J. Popplestone After he moved to the University of Massachusetts at Amherst he continued contributing ideas and code to the developers at Sussex University, including his implementation of Scheme in Pop-11, available here in two formats, one for Linux and one for Windows: [I don't know when they were last tested.] His online (unfinished) book describing programming paradigms, using examples from Pop-11 is available here: Paradigms of Programming For more information on some of the teaching materials and demos in Poplog search: David Young has provided the following reference: R. J. Popplestone: The Design Philosophy of POP-2. in: D. Michie: Machine Intelligence 3 Edinburgh University Press, 1968 Cited which contains this excerpt: * All items can be the actual parameters of functions * All items can be returned as results of functions * All items can be the subject of assignment statements * All items can be tested for equality. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ TO BE ADDED: Comments on Poplog graphical facilities Links to more examples/demonstrations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PARTIAL HISTORY OF POPLOG Background information on Poplog and its history can be found in these messy, partly out of date, files: SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION (e.g. porting or rebuilding Poplog) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ JOINING POP-FORUM Anyone wishing to ask questions or contribute additional material should join the pop-forum mailing list: Additional information may be provided here later about Github-based work on porting or extending Poplog. (Poplog on ARM could be particularly valuable in education. ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Please report problems to the pop_forum list, or, as a last resort, to: Aaron Sloman a.sloman[at] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------