The problem

~45% of behaviour is habitual: Neal, D., Wood, W., and Quinn, J. Habits—A repeat performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science 15, 4 (2006), 198–202.

The theory

Overview of dual process theories: Evans, J.S.B.T. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, (2008), 255–278.

Habit theory: Neal, D.T., Wood, W., Labrecque, J.S., and Lally, P. How do habits guide behavior? Perceived and actual triggers of habits in daily life. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48, 2 (2012), 492–498.

Habits + dual process theories: Wood, W., Labrecque, J.S., Lin, P.-Y., and Rünger, D. Habits in Dual Process Models. Dual-process theories of the social mind, (2014), 371.

The approach

Pinder, C., Vermeulen, J., Beale, R., and Hendley, R. Exploring Nonconscious Behaviour Change Interventions on Mobile Devices. MobileHCI'15 Adjunct, ACM Press (2015). PDF

Priming nonconscious goals:

  • Aarts, H., Custers, R., and Veltkamp, M. Goal Priming and the Affective-Motivational Route to Nonconscious Goal Pursuit. Social Cognition 26, 5 (2008), 555–577.
  • Pinder, C., Vermeulen, J., Beale, R., and Hendley, R. (2015). Subliminal Priming of Nonconscious Goals on Smartphones. MobileHCI'15, ACM , 825-830. PDF

Implementation Intentions:

  • Gollwitzer, P. Implementation intentions: strong effects of simple plans. American psychologist 54, 7 (1999), 493.

Cognitive Bias modification:

  • Wiers, R.W., Gladwin, T.E., Hofmann, W., Salemink, E., and Ridderinkhof, K.R. Cognitive Bias Modification and Cognitive Control Training in Addiction and Related Psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science 1, 2 (2013), 192–212.
  • Pinder, C., Fleck, R., Segundo Diaz R.L., Beale, R. and Hendley, R. J. (2016). Accept the Banana: Exploring Incidental Cognitive Bias Modification Techniques on Smartphones. In CHI'16 Extended Abstracts. San Jose, CA, USA: ACM Press. PDF
  • Evaluation issues

    Habits can take 18-254 days to form: Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C.H.M., Potts, H.W.W., and Wardle, J. How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology 40, 6 (2010), 998–1009.

    Klasnja, P., Consolvo, S., and Pratt, W. How to evaluate technologies for health behavior change in HCI research. Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems, ACM (2011), 3063–3072.

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