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Feature Integration in Requirements Engineering

Working Group 23531


Technical Report for Year 1

May 1998

Mark Ryan
School of Computer Science
University of Birmingham
Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
Tel: +44 121 414 7361. Fax: +44 121 414 4281.,



FIREworks is a Working Group that addresses the problem of adding features to complex software products, in particular software for telecommunication services. It aims to provide a feature-oriented approach to software design including requirements specification languages and verification logics, as well as a method for their usage. FIREworks began on 1 May 1997; this document is its first year report.

Importance and industrial relevance.

Complex software systems nearly always have an extended lifetime during which requirements change, e.g. because users become more sophisticated or because the underlying technology supports more capabilities. Meeting new requirements means adding features to the software systems; this may involve changing existing components or adding new components. The more complex the system, the harder it is to make such changes without breaking something; this problem has been dubbed the `feature interaction problem' in telecommunications. Methods and supporting tools to overcome these problems are of immense potential commercial value.

To guarantee industrial relevance of the work carried out by the Working Group, each academic partner is supported by a local industrial company, which is involved in the production or use of feature-oriented software. The supporters are mostly telecom companies.

The Working Group aims to extend some existing specification languages by adding feature-oriented constructs. It investigates validation, verification, and simulation methods for the extended languages and assesses their success via case studies.


The University of Birmingham (School of Computer Science), UK. Coordinating site. Participants: Mark Ryan (project coordinator), Marta Kwiatkowska.
Aalborg University (Department of Computer Science), Denmark. Participants: Arne Skou, Kim Larsen.
Facultés Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix (Institut d'Informatique), Namur, Belgium. Participants: Pierre-Yves Schobbens, Eric Dubois and Philippe Du Bois.
Istituto Trentino di Cultura (Istituto per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica), Trento, Italy. Participants: Alessandro Cimatti, Fausto Giunchiglia.
Instituto Superior Técnico (Departamento de Matemática), Lisbon, Portugal. Participants: Amílcar Sernadas and Cristina Sernadas.
Université d'Evry (Laboratoire de Mathematiques et d'Informatique), France. Participants: Gilles Bernot.
University of Edinburgh (Laboratory for Foundations of Computer Science) UK. Participants: Stephen Gilmore, Don Sannella.
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Departamento Ingeniería de Sistemas Telemáticos and ETSI Telecomunicación), Madrid, Spain. Participants: José Mañas, Tomás Robles Valladares.
University of Magdeburg (Institute for Technical Information Systems), Germany. Participants: Gunter Saake.
Ecole Centrale de Nantes (ICRyN), Nantes, France. Participants: Franck Cassez, Ahmed Bouabdallah.


At the Initial Meeting (May 1997), subgroups were established as follows:

SG1 Model checking (<>)
Leader: Alessandro Cimatti
Model checking for feature interaction detection The feature construct in industrial strength model checker
SG2 Real-time and probabilistic logics (<>)
Leader: Marta Kwiatkowska
Probabilities to abstract from Intelligent Network complexity Feature interactions in real-time examples
SG3 Compositionality (<>)
Leader: Amilcar Sernadas Feature oriented spec vs OO spec FO relation with (standard) composition/abstraction Exploitation of FO by verification methods Combination of specifications and formalisms
SG4 Languages and tools (<>)
Leader: Pierre-Yves Schobbens
Which languages are suitable for extending with the feature construct? Defaults
SG5 Testing (<>)
Leader: Gilles Bernot
Testing techniques may be an efficient way to identify and study the critical modifications of behaviour induced by features. SG5 will investigate how far some classical testing techniques can be adapted to feature orientation.

Further details are available from the WWW page.

Summary and main conclusions

The first year of FIREworks has been a substantial success. An Initial Meeting was held in Namur, at which the member sites presented their technical background, and five subgroups were set up to facilitate co-operation. Since then, several visits and working meetings have taken place, and recently the first of three annual workshops has taken place in Magdeburg. (Details of these events are described in section 4. The first annual Workshop (WS1) is not described in this document since it occurred just after the end of the first year.)

Many papers have been published or are currently in progress (see References). Joint authorship across sites gives evidence of Co-operation between members, and this is anticipated to increase further during the life of the Working Group.

Research in First Year

AALB: Aalborg, Denmark

We have concentrated on the study of realistic industrial cases in order to gain insight in the problems when new features are added.

BHAM: Birmingham, UK

We have developed a feature construct for the model checking language SMV, and use it to provide a plug-and-play framework for exploring feature interactions. We model the basic system and its features as different textual units, and integrate the features into the basic system, producing an extended system. We check for interactions by verifying the extended system. Although worked out in detail for SMV [McM93], this approach works in principle with any modelling language and verification method.

We have extended the SMV language with a new construct for describing features, and have built a prototype tool called SFI (``SMV Feature Integrator'') which compiles descriptions in this extended language into pure SMV, ready for verification by the SMV model checker. We present details of this extension and integration in our papers [PR98a,PR98b,Rya97], along with two substantial case studies of feature integration: the lift system, and the telephone system.

We have also worked on the foundations of probabilistic model model checking. The work has centred around the following themes: formulating probabilistic extensions of modal/temporal logics; constructing algorithms for automatic verification of probabilistic systems against probabilistic temporal logic specifications; and efficient data structures for probabilistic verification [HK97,BCHG+97,BKa,BK97a,BK97b,BKb].

Lastly, our work on the logical foundations of multi-agent systems is also related to features, since we are studying mechanisms for building highly expressive logics by adding off-the-shelf features to simple logics [LR98d,LR98b,LR97,LR98c,LR98a]

FUNDP: Namur, Belgium

The research of last year was centred on specification languages based on temporal logic. Features are indeed understood by the user from their temporal behaviour. One important aspect is that features modify specifications in a way that cannot be completely foreseen in advance. We have thus developed a logic for dealing with such evolving specifications, where time is divided in two levels: normal behaviour and exceptional changes of specifications due to feature additions [SSSS88]. Also, a complete system for a simple temporal logic was discovered [SR88]. We concentrated more specifically on real-time. In this field, we produced:

This research work took place during the stay in Lisbon. Also during that time, a temporal non-monotonic logic was discussed with Sofia Guerra.

LFCS: Edinburgh, UK

Research on the feature interaction problem at the Edinburgh site has focussed on performance features (e.g., number of calls put through per minute; number of persons delivered to their desired destination, etc.). We have used stochastic process algebra to address these problems.

The focus for work on stochastic process algebra at the Edinburgh site is Performance Evaluation Process Algebra (PEPA) [Hil96]. PEPA allows the modeller to specify both behavioural aspects of a system and also performance-related measures. This gives a fresh perspective on feature interaction by providing a setting in which the impact of newly added functionality on measured system performance can be carefully analysed.

Our approach to defining the right conceptual structures and notation for the extension of PEPA for feature interaction analysis began by first developing a series of carefully measured models of feature interactions within different types of queueing systems [TH97]. The behaviour of simple computer systems which can be modelled by queues is a well-studied area from the performance perspective and provided a secure platform for the definition and consideration of a range of aspects of the feature interaction problem.

Adding new features to an existing complex system can have impact on both the functionality and the performance of the system and the new system is usually more complex than the previous one. This is the motivation for our continued research into novel techniques for state-space reduction via aggregation of a stochastic process algebra model and the classification of PEPA models into collections which yield to effective decomposition and solution techniques. We have completed our work on a new algorithm for efficient on-the-fly aggregation of PEPA models [GHR98] and have shown how the effective decomposition technique of quasi-separability can be applied to PEPA models [TGH98].

The PEPA language is supported by a suite of modelling tools, the best known of which is the PEPA Workbench. The tools in the modelling suite allow the modeller to check both behavioural properties of models (such as freedom from deadlock) and performance ones (such as throughput and component utilisation). We have recently been extending the suite of tools to add more advanced modelling capabilities and have taken this opportunity to reflect on the use of the suite so far both by the developers of the PEPA language and by its users [CGHT98].

This background has allowed us to progress to a suitable extended modelling notation for feature-oriented analysis of PEPA models. This notation provides the modeller with the ability to make precise statements about the features of the system which have measurable performance impact [GH98].

IRST: Trento, Italy

The activity was mainly devoted to the investigation and development of automatic techniques and tools for the verification and validation of specifications written in different styles.

We have developed a general platform for model checking, called NUSMV [ CCGR98], starting from the SMV system developed at CMU [ McM93]. The idea is that should be usable, customisable and extensible, with as little effort as possible, also by people different from the developers. A further goal is to produce a system which is very robust, and close to the standards required by industry. includes a number of extensions, a user interface, and several partitioning techniques which allow to tackle the state explosion problem. NUSMV will be used as the basis for a model checker for the verification and validation of feature oriented specifications and models.

Industrial applications
We investigated the applicability of different model checking systems to the verification and validation of a large, featured, industrial-scale designs [CGM+98a,HGCC+98,CGM+98b], i.e. part of the ``safety logic" of a railway interlocking system. The formal model is structured to retain the reusability and scalability properties of the system being modelled. Part of it is defined once for all at a low cost, and re-used. The rest of the model can be mechanically generated from the designers' current specification language. The model checker is ``hidden" to the user, it runs as a powerful debugger.

Planning via Model Checking
Planning via Model Checking is a novel approach to planning, firstly introduced in [CGGT97]. It is based on the reformulation of a planning problem to the exploration of a finite state automaton. Automata exploration can be efficiently performed with Model Checking, a formal verification technique widely applied in design of industrial systems. Planning problems are significantly difficult, and demand a thorough investigation of the state explosion problem. This approach was extended to solve more complex planning problems [CRT98b,CRT98a], and the application of abstraction techniques has begun to be investigated [CGR98].

IST: Lisbon, Portugal

The IST site has been involved in several tasks within the scientific range of FIREworks. The two talks delivered by IST at the FIREworks Initial Meeting in Namur, Belgium (May 23-24, 1997) focused on the relationship between model checking and theorem proving via synthesis, and on the algebraic characterisation of mechanisms for integrating heterogeneous specification logics. This second topic has, so far, materialised in three papers [SSC97b,SSC97c,SSC97a] and two MSc theses [Cou97,Nun98]. Categorical characterisations of synchronisation and fibring of logics were obtained and some preliminary preservation results were achieved. Temporalisation of logics has also deserved some attention. A systematic study of notions of logic and relation between logics was also developed.

The use of defaults in specification and their relationship to features are under current investigation in close collaboration with both Birmingham and Namur. Work on this area is reported in several papers [GRS97a,GRS97b,GR98,Gue98,sBRL98]. They focus, in particular, on default institutions as a means of structuring specifications and on the particular case of temporal logic. Some aspects of reasoning and applications to feature specification have also been addressed.

Research on the area of real-time and probabilistic logics is also ongoing. Preliminary results on the subject can be found in [Mat97,MSS98,LSS98] and will be presented at the forthcoming First FIREworks Workshop in Magdeburg, Germany (May 15-16, 1998). Although some aspects of model checking have been studied, the focus was, for now, on the semantics front.

Other approaches to the specification of reactive and concurrent systems have also been explored, namely temporal logic [CRSS98,DRCS97,ECSD98,SSC98], the situation calculus [Ram97], observational logic [Res97], and type theory [RV97a,RV97b]. Abductive reasoning within temporal logic has been studied in the submitted PhD thesis [Gou98].

LAMI: Evry, France

Our approach to the feature interaction problem is to use axiomatic specification formalisms in order to clearly identify interactions and, then generating test scenarii which give some concrete and relevant specified behaviours face to interactions.

The main reason for choosing axiomatic specifications is that we think it should be interesting to be able to identify the characteristics of the features involved ``as soon as possible.'' The high abstraction level of description allowed in axiomatic formalisms provide a good approach to specify interactions of features when they conceptually appear (in the right specification phase). Another reason for choosing axiomatic specification is that the modularity is well defined within axiomatic specification frameworks and although feature integration doesn't simply reduce to modularity problems, we hope to get benefits of this expertise.

Testing presents some advantages: for some years now, test sets have been automatically generated from specifications according to some coverage criteria, and test of non regression allows to check whether a new version of a software still remains successful w.r.t. a test set of the previous specification despite of the modifications. More specifically, testing and looking for interactions are activities which have some methodological similarities: while extracting test cases amounts to give particular cases which are error prone, locating interactions amounts to find particular cases which leads to unexpected behaviours.

We have worked on a specification of a lift managing system with some associated features in order to delimit the intrinsic problems of feature integrations and interactions. To perform this specification, we have chosen a real-time formalism developed at L.a.M.I. for its ability to include time and state notions within specification axioms. We have introduced some specification operators dedicated to specify features. Our specifications are composed of:

From a semantic point of view, we are now beginning to describe features inside a two-level-specification framework: the first level specifies the real available code of the system while the second describes the user interface. The two levels are linked by the view the user has of the system. Subscribing a feature consists in applying a modifier on this view. A potential interaction of features will arise when the two features involved in the interaction impose two different views of a same user's functionality.

Moreover, we are also working on some subjects which, even if they are not directly connected to the feature area, will be re-used or adapted for feature issues:

MAG: Magdeburg, Germany

We propose a method for the elicitation and the expression of requirements. The requirements can then be transformed in a systematic way into a formal specification that is a suitable basis for design and implementation of a software system. The approach - which distinguishes between requirements and specifications - gives methodological support for requirements elicitation and specification development. It does not introduce a new language but builds on known techniques [HS98].

Other members in MAG have continued work described in [CRSS97,CRSS98]. We introduce specification approach which allows to change the dynamic behaviour of objects in an information system during runtime of the system. For that we provide an extension of the specification language TROLL for adding and removing specification axioms (which, for instance, describe features of the system) by occurrences of special events, called ``mutators''. In this way, the set of axioms valid for the system may change in the course of time. In traditional specification approaches this is not possible: a modification of the valid axioms in a specification during runtime of the system usually results in inconsistencies or leads to the situation that the part of the system's life cycle already performed before the modification does not fulfill the modified specification. Our approach aims at at allowing dynamically adding new features to existing (and running) systems and dynamically changing or removing features currently present. As semantic basis we apply a two-layered approach based on OSL (Object Specification Language). In the base layer we use OSL for describing the part of the system's behaviour which is intended to remain always unchanged. On the meta level we have the changeable part of the specification as a set of currently valid axioms which are again expressed in OSL.

In [CS97] we present an alternative extension of temporal logic for describing evolving dynamic behaviour of objects in information systems.

In [TSC97] we present a case study in which we apply our specification approach [CRSS98]. As application area we choose federated (information) systems and we describe and discuss the dynamically adding of new component systems (and removing of currently present ones, as well). This case study had an essential influence on the shape of the specification language we use in [CRSS97,CRSS98].

Besides the research activities the Magdeburg group organised the 1998 FIREworks Workshop (May 15-16, 1998, Magdeburg). The proceedings of this workshop are available as [ST98].

NANT: IRCyN, Nantes, France

The activity within our team have concentrated on some of the objectives or the FIREworks project: investigating existing specification languages, logics and models and determine some of them capable of being extended with the notion of feature.

Our approach to the feature integration problem has been the following:

Travel in first year

During the first year of FIREworks, the partners have worked hard at understanding the areas and opportunities for collaboration and therefore travel among the sites has been limited. The complexity of the topic has meant that sites have had to work hard on their own, but, as plainly established during the first annual workshop (WS1, Magdeburg, 15-16 May 1998) they are now ready to work together. There are several SG meetings and working visits in the planning stage, and it is expected that there will be more travel between the sites in the second year than the first; see section 5 on Future Plans.

Travel during the first year is as follows.

Future plans

Subgroup reorganisation.

It is in the nature of research activities that it is not possible to foresee what are fruitful avenues and connections, and therefore we should periodically review this subgroup structure and revise it where appropriate. After some email discussions, we decided that SG3(Compositionality) did not make very much sense as an independent subgroup, and that the members of SG3 should perform their investigations within the other subgroups. This decision was ratified at the Business Meeting in Magdeburg on 15 May 1998.

Planned research.

We report our future plans, according to the subgroups.

(Model checking)

(Probabilistic and hybrid systems)

(Logics and tools)


Planned travel

Working Meetings in FIREworks are set up at relatively short notice within FIREworks, and therefore it is not possible to list all the meetings that will take place next year. The following meetings are planned, however:

The next Workshop (WS2) will be held on 9-10 April 1999, hosted by LaMI, Evry, France. It will be a joint Workshop with WG Esprit WG ASPIRE.

The third and final FIREworks Workshop (WS3) will take place in (approx) April 2000, hosted by IRST, Trento, Italy.


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In FIREworks '98, Proceedings of the 1st FIREworks Workshop, Magdeburg, Germany, May 15-16, 1998, pages 65-77. Fakultät für Informatik, Universität Magdeburg, 1998.

A. L. Nunes.
Temporalização de Lógicas (Temporalisation of logics).
Master's thesis, IST, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1998.
In Portuguese - Supervised by C. Sernadas.

M. C. Plath and M. D. Ryan.
Plug-and-play features, 1998.

M. C. Plath and M. D. Ryan.
A tool for adding features to systems described in the smv language, 1998.

J. Ramos.
The situation and state calculus.
In A. Drewery, G.-J. Kruijff, and R. Zuber, editors, Proceedings of the Second ESSLII Student Session, 1997.

P. Resende.
Quantales, finite observations and strong bisimulation.
Research report, Section of Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal, 1997.
Submitted for publication.

Jean-Francois Raskin, Pierre-Yves Schobbens, and Thomas A. Henzinger.
Axioms for real-time logics.
In CONCUR'98: 9th International Conference on Concurrency Theory, LNCS. Springer, 1998.
to appear.

A. Ravara and V. Vasconcelos.
Behavioural types for a calculus of concurrent objects.
In 3rd International Euro-Par Conference, volume 1300 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 554-561. Springer, 1997.

A. Ravara and V. Vasconcelos.
A type algebra for concurrent objects.
Technical report, Section of Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal, 1997.
Submitted for publication.

M. D. Ryan.
Feature-oriented programming: A case study using the SMV language.
Technical report, School of Computer Science, The University of Birmingham, UK, September 1997.

F. M. Dionísio, S. Brass, M. Ryan, and U. Lipeck.
Hypothetical reasoning with defaults.
In Workshop on Computational Aspects of Nonmonotonic Reasoning - 7th International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning, 1998.

P.-Y. Schobbens and Jean-Francois Raskin.
Proving a conjecture of andreka on temporal logic.
Technical report, FUNDP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1988.

A. Sernadas, C. Sernadas, and C. Caleiro.
Fibring of logics as a categorial construction.
Technical report, Section of Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal, 1997.
Submitted for publication.

A. Sernadas, C. Sernadas, and C. Caleiro.
Synchronization of logics.
Studia Logica, 59(2):217-247, 1997.

A. Sernadas, C. Sernadas, and C. Caleiro.
Synchronization of logics with mixed rules: Completeness preservation.
In M. Johnson, editor, AMAST'97 - 6th International Conference on Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology, volume LNCS 1349, pages 465-478. Springer-Verlag, 1997.

A. Sernadas, C. Sernadas, and C. Caleiro.
Denotational semantics of object specification.
Acta Informatica, 1998.
In print.

Pierre-Yves Schobbens, Amilcar Sernadas, Cristina Sernadas, and Gunter Saake.
A two-level temporal logic for evolving specifications.
Technical report, FUNDP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1988.

G. Saake and C. Türker, editors.
FIREworks '98, Proceedings of the 1st FIREworks Workshop, Magdeburg, Germany, May 15-16, 1998. Fakultät für Informatik, Universität Magdeburg, May 1998.

N. Thomas, S. Gilmore, and J. Hillston.
Applying quasi-separability to Markovian process algebra.
Submitted for publication, September 1998.

N. Thomas and J. Hillston.
Using Markovian process algebra to specify interactions in queueing systems.
Technical Report ECS-LFCS-97-373, Laboratory for Foundations of Computer Science, Department of Computer Science, The University of Edinburgh, 1997.

C. Türker, G. Saake, and S. Conrad.
Modeling Database Federations in Terms of Evolving Agents.
In F. Pin, Z. W. Ras, and A. Skowron, editors, ISMIS 1997 -- Poster Proceedings of the 10th Int. Symposium on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems, Charlotte, North Carolina, October 15-18, 1997, pages 197-208. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1997.

Recommandations UIT-T.
Q.1213 : Global Functional Plane for Intelligent Network CS-1 - Q.1214 : Distributed Functional Plane for Intelligent Network CS-1.


Program of FIREworks Initial Meeting

FIREworks: Initial Meeting. 23-24 May 1997, Namur, Belgium

Friday 23 May

Opening & welcome
BHAM - Marta Kwiatkowska: Probabilistic model checking
FUN - Pierre-Yves Schobbens: Decidable real-time logics
IST - Amilcar Sernadas: Categorial characterisation of the fibring of logics
lunch in restaurant Les Combles, rue de l'Arsenal
Business meeting (agenda below)
AALB - Arne Skou: Modelling and Verification Using UPPAAL: An Industrial Case Study
IST - Carlos Caleiro: Canonical operational semantics of temporal specifications
LaMI - Gilles Bernot: A Presentation of the Evry Team on Formal Specifications and Program Transformation
Dinner in Le Petit Brasseur, rue des Brasseurs

Saturday 24 May

BHAM - Mark Ryan: Features in SMV programs
BRST - Franck Cassez / Ahmed Bouabdallah: Examples of formal definitions of feature interactions
IRST - Alessandro Cimatti: Formal Methods at IRST: Research and technology transfer projects
MAD - Tomas Valladares / Juan Quemada or Gabriel Huecas: E-LOTOS current state and future
KPN Research - Hugo Velthuijsen: Roadblocks on the path to automated feature interaction detection
lunch in Brasserie Henry, place Saint-Aubin
MAG - Gunter Saake: Temporal specification for evolving behaviour
Rijks Univ. Utrecht - Edwin Veenendaal : Features in Telecommunication Systems as Default Rules

Minutes of First Business Meeting

FIREworks: Minutes of Initial Meeting. 23-24 May 1997, Namur, Belgium.

Present: Marc Aiguier, Gilles Bernot, Ahmed Bouabdallah, Wiet Bouma, Carlos Caleiro, Franck Cassez, Alessandro Cimatti, Marco Daniele, Gabriel Huecas, Marta Kwiatkowska, Malte Plath, Jean-Francois Raskin, Tomas Robles, Mark Ryan, Gunter Saake, Pierre-Yves Schobbens, Amilcar Sernadas, Arne Skou, Wiebe van der Hoek, Edwin Veenendaal, and Hugo Velthuijsen

News of start date. 1 May 1997 was confirmed.

Meetings and workshops. The following Workshops will be held.
15-16 May 1998:
Workshop 1, hosted by MAG, Magdeburg, Germany.

c. April 1999:
Workshop 2, hosted by LaMI, Evry, France, a joint Workshop with WG Exprit WG ASPIRE

c. April 2000:
Workshop 3, hosted by IRST, Trento, Italy.

Other meetings will be held on individual initiative (see WGP part 2).

The subgroups were established. For each one, some potential issues were discussed. (See section 1 for list of subgroups.)

Membership of subgroups was agreed (please see WWW pages). additions/changes).

Financial matters. It was agreed that the coordinating site holds all the money, and that expenses are paid by the coordinating site to the participant site in arrears. Participants in FIREworks events submit their expense claims to their own University, which (preferably in October and April each year) then claims the money from Birmingham University, by filing a financial report. (Birmingham can pay money only after it has received it from the Commission. The final 10% is not paid by the Commission until the final report has been accepted.)

Only travel and subsistence expenses for FIREworks meetings may be claimed (no overheads, but direct admin costs by the coordinating site are permitted). FIREworks meetings may conveniently be held next to another event, eg, a conference.

Each site will have one-tenth of 38.6 K Ecu in the first year; in the second and third years, the fraction of 38.6 K Ecu will be computed by a formula measuring the level of participation during the previous year, according to the weights:

Journal article 4 points
published Conf paper 3 points
Tech report 1 points
PhD thesis 2 points
presences at WS 2 points
presences at SG mtg 1 point
talks at WS 2 points
talks at SG mtg 1 point
SG leader 6 points

It was agreed that this formula would not be applied blindly, but that the coordinator will have the discretion to vary points or introduce minima/maxima in appropriate cases.

Papers must acknowledge and be relevant to FIREworks to count, and bibtex entry with URL must be submitted for annual report.

Scientific reporting. LaTeX/BibTeX were agreed to be used throughout the WG.
Periodically, all members will send a BiBTeX entry for their FIREworks-relevant publications to Malte Plath (, for inclusion on the WWW. The BiBTeX entry should include a URL field. Publications should bear acknowledgement for financial support to "Esprit WG FIREworks (23531)".
At the end of each year: each site will report its scientific results. Please \cite all of the papers you have submitted in (a).

each subgroup will report its scientific results, again citing the papers in (a).

each site reports the FIREworks activities in which it has participated, split into the categories:
  • Initial Meeting / Workshops
  • Working Meetings
  • Working visits to other sites
  • Validation meetings with industrial supporter (NB the last category is not funded by FIREworks)

The coordinator puts these together to form the annual report.

Dissemination and Management. The tasks specified in the WGP which members have kindly agreed to carry out were confirmed.

About this document ...

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