Martin Escardo, 11th September 2018
Completed by Todd Waugh Ambridge, 15th May 2020

We begin by defining a "codistance" or "closeness" function

  c : X → X → ℕ∞

such that

  c x y ≡ ∞ ⇔ x ≡ y

for some examples of types X, including Baire, Cantor and ℕ∞.

That is, two points are equal iff they are infinitely close.  If we
have c x y ≡ under n for n : ℕ, the intuition is that x and y can be
distinguished by a finite amount of information of size n.

(An application is to show that WLPO holds iff ℕ∞ is discrete.)

We then discuss further codistance axioms.


{-# OPTIONS --without-K --exact-split --safe #-}

open import SpartanMLTT
open import UF-FunExt

module Codistance (fe : FunExt) where

open import Sequence fe
open import CoNaturals fe
open import CoNaturalsArithmetic fe
open import GenericConvergentSequence renaming (min to min')
open import DiscreteAndSeparated
open import UF-Miscelanea
open import Two-Properties

module sequences
        {𝓤 : Universe}
        (D : 𝓤 ̇ )
        (δ : is-discrete D)


We denote the type of sequences over D by $, and define a codistance
function $ → $ → ℕ∞ using the fact that ℕ∞ is the final coalgebra of
the functor 𝟙 + (-), which we refer to as corecursion.


  𝓢 : 𝓤 ̇
  𝓢 =   D
  X : 𝓤 ̇
  X = 𝓢 × 𝓢
  f : (α β : 𝓢)  head α  head β  𝟙 {𝓤₀} + X
  f α β q = inr (tail α , tail β)
  g : (α β : 𝓢)  head α  head β  𝟙 {𝓤₀} + X
  g α β n = inl *
  p : X  𝟙 {𝓤₀} + X
  p (α , β) = cases (f α β) (g α β) (δ (head α) (head β))
  c : 𝓢  𝓢  ℕ∞
  c = curry (ℕ∞-corec p)

We use the private name "c" in this submodule, which is exported as


 codistance : 𝓢  𝓢  ℕ∞
 codistance = c


The two defining properties of the function c are the following:


 codistance-eq₀ : (α β : 𝓢)  head α  head β
                 c α β  Zero
 codistance-eq₁ : (α β : 𝓢)  head α  head β
                 c α β  Succ (c (tail α) (tail β))
 codistance-eq₀ α β n = γ r
   t : δ (head α) (head β)  inr n
   t = discrete-inr (fe 𝓤 𝓤₀) δ (head α) (head β) n
   r : p (α , β)  inl *
   r = ap (cases (f α β) (g α β)) t
   γ : p (α , β)  inl *  c α β  Zero
   γ = Coalg-morphism-Zero p (α , β) *

 codistance-eq₁ α β q = γ r
   t : δ (head α) (head β)  inl q
   t = discrete-inl δ (head α) (head β) q
   r : p (α , β)  inr (tail α , tail β)
   r = ap (cases (f α β) (g α β)) t
   γ : p (α , β)  inr (tail α , tail β)
      c α β  Succ (c (tail α) (tail β))
   γ = Coalg-morphism-Succ p (α , β) (tail α , tail β)


That any sequence is infinitely close to itself is proved by
coinduction on ℕ∞ using codistance-eq₁:


 infinitely-close-to-itself : (α : 𝓢)  c α α  
 infinitely-close-to-itself α = ℕ∞-coinduction R b (c α α)  γ
   l :  α  c α α  Succ (c (tail α) (tail α))
   l α = codistance-eq₁ α α refl
   R : ℕ∞  ℕ∞  𝓤 ̇
   R u v = (Σ α  𝓢 , u  c α α) × (v  )
   b : ℕ∞-bisimulation R
   b .(c α α) . ((α , refl) , refl) = s , t , Pred-∞-is-∞
     s : positivity (c α α)  positivity 
     s = successors-same-positivity (l α) ((Succ-∞-is-∞ (fe 𝓤₀ 𝓤₀))⁻¹)
     t : Σ α'  𝓢 , Pred (c α α)  c α' α'
     t = tail α , (ap Pred (l α)  Pred-Succ)
   γ : R (c α α) 
   γ = (α , refl) , refl


That any two infinitely close sequences are equal is proved by
coinduction on sequences, using both codistance-eq₀ (to rule out an
impossible case) and codistance-eq₁ (to establish the result):


 infinitely-close-are-equal : (α β : 𝓢)  c α β    α  β
 infinitely-close-are-equal = seq-coinduction  α β  c α β  ) b
   b : (α β : 𝓢)  c α β  
                  (head α  head β) × (c (tail α) (tail β)  )
   b α β q = d , e
     l : head α  head β  c α β  Zero
     l = codistance-eq₀ α β
     d : head α  head β
     d = Cases (δ (head α) (head β))
           (p : head α  head β)
           (n : head α  head β)
             𝟘-elim (Zero-not-Succ (Zero    ≡⟨ (l n)⁻¹ 
                                     c α β   ≡⟨ q 
                                            ≡⟨ (Succ-∞-is-∞ (fe 𝓤₀ 𝓤₀))⁻¹ 
                                     Succ   )))
     e : c (tail α) (tail β)  
     e = ap Pred (Succ (c (tail α) (tail β)) ≡⟨ (codistance-eq₁ α β d)⁻¹ 
                  c α β                      ≡⟨ q 


Symmetric property:


 symmetric-property : (α β : 𝓢)  c α β  c β α
 symmetric-property α β = ℕ∞-coinduction R b (c α β) (c β α) γ
   R : ℕ∞  ℕ∞  𝓤 ̇
   R u v = Σ \α  Σ \β  (u  c α β) × (v  c β α)
   b : ℕ∞-bisimulation R
   b .(c α β) .(c β α) (α , β , refl , refl)
     = s , t (δ (head α) (head β))
     s : positivity (c α β)  positivity (c β α)
     s = Cases (δ (head α) (head β)) sₕ sₜ
       sₕ : head α  head β  positivity (c α β)  positivity (c β α)
       sₕ h≡ = successors-same-positivity
               (codistance-eq₁ α β h≡) (codistance-eq₁ β α (h≡ ⁻¹))
       sₜ : head α  head β  positivity (c α β)  positivity (c β α)
       sₜ h≢ = equal-same-positivity (c α β) (c β α)
               (codistance-eq₀ α β h≢
                codistance-eq₀ β α  h≡  h≢ (h≡ ⁻¹)) ⁻¹)
     t : (head α  head β) + (head α  head β)
        R (Pred (c α β)) (Pred (c β α))
     t (inl h≡) = tail α , tail β
                , ap Pred (codistance-eq₁ α β h≡  Pred-Succ)
                , ap Pred (codistance-eq₁ β α (h≡ ⁻¹)  Pred-Succ)
     t (inr h≢) = α , β
                , Pred-Zero-is-Zero' (c α β) (codistance-eq₀ α β h≢)
                , Pred-Zero-is-Zero' (c β α) (codistance-eq₀ β α  h≡  h≢ (h≡ ⁻¹)))
   γ : R (c α β) (c β α)
   γ = α , β , refl , refl


Ultra property:


 codistance-eq₁' : (α β : 𝓢)  is-positive (c α β)
                  head α  head β
 codistance-eq₁' α β p = Cases (δ (head α) (head β)) id
    h≢  𝟘-elim (zero-is-not-one
    (is-Zero-Zero ⁻¹  ap  -  incl - 0) (codistance-eq₀ α β h≢ ⁻¹)  p)))

 open import NaturalsOrder

 codistance-conceptually₁ : (α β : 𝓢) (n : )
                           ((k : )  k  n  α k  β k)
                           n  c α β
 codistance-conceptually₁ α β zero α≈ₙβ
  = transport (0 ⊏_) (codistance-eq₁ α β (α≈ₙβ 0 *) ⁻¹)
    (is-positive-Succ (c (tail α) (tail β)))
 codistance-conceptually₁ α β (succ n) α≈ₙβ
  = transport (succ n ⊏_) (codistance-eq₁ α β (α≈ₙβ 0 *) ⁻¹)
    (codistance-conceptually₁ (tail α) (tail β) n  m  α≈ₙβ (succ m)))
 codistance-conceptually₂ : (α β : 𝓢) (n : )
                           n  c α β
                           ((k : )  k  n  α k  β k)
 codistance-conceptually₂ α β n ⊏ₙcαβ zero k≤n
  = codistance-eq₁' α β (⊏-trans'' (c α β) n 0 k≤n ⊏ₙcαβ)
 codistance-conceptually₂ α β n ⊏ₙcαβ (succ k) k≤n
  = codistance-conceptually₂ (tail α) (tail β) k (transport (succ k ⊏_)
      (codistance-eq₁ α β (codistance-eq₁' α β (⊏-trans'' (c α β) n 0 * ⊏ₙcαβ)))
      (⊏-trans'' (c α β) n (succ k) k≤n ⊏ₙcαβ))
    k (≤-refl k)

 min-split : (α β : ℕ∞) (n : )  n  uncurry min' (α , β)  n  α × n  β
 pr₁ (min-split α β n min≼) = different-from-₀-equal-₁
                               x  zero-is-not-one (Lemma[min𝟚ab≡₀] (inl x) ⁻¹  min≼))
 pr₂ (min-split α β n min≼) = different-from-₀-equal-₁
                               x  zero-is-not-one (Lemma[min𝟚ab≡₀] (inr x) ⁻¹  min≼))

 ultra-property : (α β ε : 𝓢)  min (c α β , c β ε)  c α ε
 ultra-property α β ε n min≼  = codistance-conceptually₁ α ε n
                      k k≤n  codistance-conceptually₂ α β n (pr₁ min-split') k k≤n
                               codistance-conceptually₂ β ε n (pr₂ min-split') k k≤n)
   min-split' : n  c α β × n  c β ε
   min-split' = min-split (c α β) (c β ε) n
                (transport  -  n  - (c α β , c β ε)) min≡ min≼)


We now consider the following two special cases for the Baire and
Cantor types:


open sequences  ℕ-is-discrete
  (codistance                 to Baire-codistance ;
   infinitely-close-to-itself to Baire-infinitely-close-to-itself ;
   infinitely-close-are-equal to Baire-infinitely-close-are-equal ;
   symmetric-property         to Baire-symmetric-property ;
   ultra-property             to Baire-ultra-property )

open sequences 𝟚 𝟚-is-discrete
  (codistance                 to Cantor-codistance ;
   infinitely-close-to-itself to Cantor-infinitely-close-to-itself ;
   infinitely-close-are-equal to Cantor-infinitely-close-are-equal ;
   symmetric-property         to Cantor-symmetric-property ;
   ultra-property             to Cantor-ultra-property )


And now we reduce the codistance of the Cantor type to the generic
convergent sequence:


ℕ∞-codistance : ℕ∞  ℕ∞  ℕ∞
ℕ∞-codistance u v = Cantor-codistance (incl u) (incl v)

ℕ∞-infinitely-close-to-itself : (u : ℕ∞)  ℕ∞-codistance u u  
ℕ∞-infinitely-close-to-itself u = Cantor-infinitely-close-to-itself (incl u)

ℕ∞-equal-are-infinitely-close : (u v : ℕ∞)  u  v  ℕ∞-codistance u v  
ℕ∞-equal-are-infinitely-close u .u refl = ℕ∞-infinitely-close-to-itself u

ℕ∞-infinitely-close-are-equal : (u v : ℕ∞)  ℕ∞-codistance u v    u  v
ℕ∞-infinitely-close-are-equal u v r = incl-lc (fe 𝓤₀ 𝓤₀) γ
  γ : incl u  incl v
  γ = Cantor-infinitely-close-are-equal (incl u) (incl v) r

ℕ∞-symmetric-property : (u v : ℕ∞)  ℕ∞-codistance u v  ℕ∞-codistance v u
ℕ∞-symmetric-property u v = Cantor-symmetric-property (incl u) (incl v)

ℕ∞-ultra-property : (u v w : ℕ∞)  min (ℕ∞-codistance u v , ℕ∞-codistance v w)
                                  ℕ∞-codistance u w
ℕ∞-ultra-property u v w = Cantor-ultra-property (incl u) (incl v) (incl w)


Axioms for codistance:


  : {X : 𝓤 ̇ }  (X  X  ℕ∞)  𝓤 ̇

indistinguishable-are-equal c =  x y  c x y    x  y
self-indistinguishable      c =  x  c x x  
is-symmetric                c =  x y  c x y  c y x
is-ultra                    c =  x y z  min (c x y , c y z)  c x z
is-codistance               c = indistinguishable-are-equal c
                              × self-indistinguishable c
                              × is-symmetric c
                              × is-ultra c


The above codistances are indeed codistances according
to this definition


open sequences

ℕ→D-has-codistance : (X : 𝓤 ̇ ) (δ : is-discrete X)
                    is-codistance (codistance X δ)
ℕ→D-has-codistance X δ
 = infinitely-close-are-equal X δ
 , infinitely-close-to-itself X δ
 , symmetric-property X δ
 , ultra-property X δ

ℕ→ℕ-has-codistance : is-codistance (Baire-codistance)
ℕ→ℕ-has-codistance = ℕ→D-has-codistance  ℕ-is-discrete

ℕ→𝟚-has-codistance : is-codistance (Cantor-codistance)
ℕ→𝟚-has-codistance = ℕ→D-has-codistance 𝟚 𝟚-is-discrete

ℕ→ℕ∞-has-codistance : is-codistance (ℕ∞-codistance)
ℕ→ℕ∞-has-codistance = ℕ∞-infinitely-close-are-equal
                    , ℕ∞-infinitely-close-to-itself
                    , ℕ∞-symmetric-property
                    , ℕ∞-ultra-property