Human-competitive results produced by genetic programming

Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.4549

  author =       "John R. Koza",
  title =        "Human-competitive results produced by genetic
  journal =      "Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines",
  year =         "2010",
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3/4",
  pages =        "251--284",
  month =        sep,
  note =         "Tenth Anniversary Issue: Progress in Genetic
                 Programming and Evolvable Machines",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming,
                 Human-competitive results, Developmental genetic
                 programming, Automated design, Parallel computing,
                 Patented inventions, Moore's law",
  ISSN =         "1389-2576",
  URL =          "",
  URL =          "",
  DOI =          "doi:10.1007/s10710-010-9112-3",
  size =         "34 pages",
  abstract =     "Genetic programming has now been used to produce at
                 least 76 instances of results that are competitive with
                 human-produced results. These human-competitive results
                 come from a wide variety of fields, including quantum
                 computing circuits, analog electrical circuits,
                 antennas, mechanical systems, controllers, game
                 playing, finite algebras, photonic systems, image
                 recognition, optical lens systems, mathematical
                 algorithms, cellular automata rules, bioinformatics,
                 sorting networks, robotics, assembly code generation,
                 software repair, scheduling, communication protocols,
                 symbolic regression, reverse engineering, and empirical
                 model discovery. This paper observes that, despite
                 considerable variation in the techniques employed by
                 the various researchers and research groups that
                 produced these human-competitive results, many of the
                 results share several common features. Many of the
                 results were achieved by using a developmental process
                 and by using native representations regularly used by
                 engineers in the fields involved. The best individual
                 in the initial generation of the run of genetic
                 programming often contains only a small number of
                 operative parts. Most of the results that duplicated
                 the functionality of previously issued patents were
                 novel solutions, not infringing solutions. In addition,
                 the production of human-competitive results, as well as
                 the increased intricacy of the results, are broadly
                 correlated to increased availability of computing power
                 tracked by Moore's law. The paper ends by predicting
                 that the increased availability of computing power
                 (through both parallel computing and Moores law) should
                 result in the production, in the future, of an
                 increasing flow of human-competitive results, as well
                 as more intricate and impressive results.",
  notes =        "Open Access",

Genetic Programming entries for John Koza