Computing Machinery and Intelligence

Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.4549

  title =        "Computing Machinery and Intelligence",
  author =       "A. M. Turing",
  journal =      "Mind",
  volume =       "49",
  pages =        "433--460",
  year =         "1950",
  month =        jan # "~01",
  bibsource =    "OAI-PMH server at",
  identifier =   "Turing, A. M. (1950) Computing Machinery and
                 Intelligence. Mind 59:pp.~433-460.",
  oai =          "",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Language,
                 Machine Learning, Cognitive Psychology, Philosophy of
                 Mind, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics",
  URL =          "",
  URL =          "",
  broken =       "",
  broken =       "",
  abstract =     "I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines
                 think?' This should begin with definitions of the
                 meaning of the terms 'machine' and 'think.' The
                 definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as
                 possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude
                 is dangerous, If the meaning of the words 'machine' and
                 'think' are to be found by examining how they are
                 commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion
                 that the meaning and the answer to the question, 'Can
                 machines think?' is to be sought in a statistical
                 survey such as a Gallup poll. But this is absurd.
                 Instead of attempting such a definition I shall replace
                 the question by another, which is closely related to it
                 and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words. The
                 new form of the problem can be described in terms of a
                 game which we call the 'imitation game.' It is played
                 with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an
                 interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The
                 interrogator stays in a room apart front the other two.
                 The object of the game for the interrogator is to
                 determine which of the other two is the man and which
                 is the woman. He knows them by labels X and Y, and at
                 the end of the game he says either 'X is A and Y is B'
                 or 'X is B and Y is A.' The interrogator is allowed to
                 put questions to A and B. We now ask the question,
                 'What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in
                 this game?' Will the interrogator decide wrongly as
                 often when the game is played like this as he does when
                 the game is played between a man and a woman? These
                 questions replace our original, 'Can machines think?'",
  notes =        " contains
                 OCR errors and one table has been deleted.

                 Human cloning. 'Random element'. Suggests digital
                 computers are not chaotic. Prediction for performance
                 in 2000.

                 'Obvious connection between this process and
                 evolution', 'hereditary material', 'mutation', 'Natural
                 selection' (interactive evolution, cf
                 \cite{unemi:1998:AFSS} amongst many).

                 Experiments not 'considered successful'.

                 Mechanical 'scientific induction'.

                 Chess, speaking English.

                 'We can only see a short distance ahead, but we can see
                 plenty there that needs to be done.'",

Genetic Programming entries for Alan M Turing